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Paolo C. Colombani, Eva Kovacs, Petra Frey-Rindova, Walter Frey, Wolfgang Langhans, Myrtha Arnold and Caspar Wenk

A field study was performed to investigate the acute influence of a milk protein hydrolysate supplemented drink (CHO+PRO) on metabolism during and after a marathon run compared to the same drink without protein (CHO). Carbohydrate metabolites and hormones were not influenced by CHO+PRO. Levels of plasma free fatty acids were significantly lower and levels of urea and most amino acids were significantly higher with CHO+PRO. Sweat urea and ammonia nitrogen excretion during the run as well as urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion during the entire exercise day was similar with both treatments. Urinary total nitrogen was significantly increased and urinary pH decreased with CHO+PRO. It was concluded that the supplemented protein was absorbed and probably at least partially oxidized during the run and that no obvious negative metabolic effects occurred. CHO+PRO did not acutely affect myofibrillar protein breakdown as assessed by the 3-methylhistidine method: however, total body protein breakdown was not measured.

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Eva M.R. Kovacs, Regina M. Schmahl, Joan M.G. Senden and Fred Brouns

The effect of a high (H) and a low (L) rate of post-exercise fluid consumption on plasma volume and fluid balance restoration was investigated. Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated at 3% of body weight (BW) by cycling at 28 °C. During the recovery period, they ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution in a volume equivalent to 120% of BW loss. Randomly, they ingested 60%, 40%, and 20% in the 1 st, 2nd, and 3rd hours of the recovery period, respectively (H), or 24% · h−1 during 5 hours (L). BW loss was similar for both trials and resulted in a total drink intake of 2.6 ± 0.1 kg. Urine output in H exceeded significantly that of L in the 2nd and 3rd hours. This was reversed in the 5th and 6th hours. Plasma volume and fluid balance increased more rapidly in H compared to L. After 6 hours this difference disappeared. It is concluded that H results in a faster rate of plasma volume and fluid balance restoration compared to L, despite a temporary large urine output.

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Mine Yildirim, Anna Schoeni, Amika S. Singh, Teatske M. Altenburg, Johannes Brug, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Eva Kovacs, Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Yannis Manios and Mai J.M. Chinapaw


The aim of the study was to examine the association of daily variations in rainfall and temperature with sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) in European children.


Children were included from 5 countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland) as part of the ENERGY-project. We used cross-sectional data from 722 children aged 10–12 years (47% boys). ST and PA were measured by accelerometers for 6 consecutive days, including weekend days. Weather data were collected from online national weather reports. Multilevel regression models were used for data analyses.


Maximum temperature was positively associated with light PA (β = 3.1 min/day; 95% CI = 2.4–3.8), moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = 0.6 min/day; 95% CI = 0.4–0.8), and average PA [β = 4.1 counts per minute (cpm); 95% CI = 1.6–6.5, quadratic relationship]. Rainfall was inversely and quadratically associated with light PA (β = –1.3 min/day; 95% CI = –1.9 to –0.6), moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = –0.6 min/day; 95% CI = –0.8 to –0.3), and average PA (β = –1.6 cpm; 95% CI = –2.2 to –0.9). Maximum temperature was not significantly associated with ST (β = –0.2 min/day; 95% CI = –1.0 to 0.6), while rainfall was positively associated with ST (β = 0.9 min/day; 95% CI = 0.6–1.3).


The current study shows that temperature and rainfall are significantly associated with PA and ST in 10- to 12-year-old European children.

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Leen Haerens, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Gabriele Eiben, Fabio Lauria, Silvia Bel, Katharina Keimer, Éva Kovács, Helen Lasn, Susann Regber, Monica Shiakou, Lea Maes and on behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium


The current study aimed at describing influencing factors for physical activity among young children to determine the best approaches for developing the IDEFICS community based intervention.


In 8 European sites a trained moderator conducted a minimum of 4 focus groups using standardized questioning guides. A total of 56 focus groups were conducted including 36 focus groups with parents and 20 focus groups with children, of which 74 were boys and 81 girls. Key findings were identified through independent reviews of focus group summary reports using content analysis methods.


Findings were generally consistent across countries. The greatest emphasis was on environmental physical (eg, seasonal influences, availability of facilities and safety), institutional (eg, length of breaks at school), and social factors (eg, role modeling of parents). Most cited personal factors by parents were age, social economical status, and perceived barriers. Both children and parents mentioned the importance of children’s preferences.


To increase physical activity levels of young children the intervention should aim at creating an environment (physical, institutional, social) supportive of physical activity. On the other hand strategies should take into account personal factors like age and social economical status and should consider personal barriers too.