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Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso

Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depressive symptoms among older adults has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Accordingly, the current study examined the reciprocal relations between physical activity and depressive symptoms in Estonian older adults over a 2-year period. A three-wave longitudinal model was tested using cross-lagged analysis for 195 individuals aged over 70 years (mean = 72.1, SD = 2.1; 145 females). Results indicated that a cross-lagged model in which depressive symptoms predicted walking at subsequent time points (higher depressive symptoms were related to fewer walking steps), and walking predicted depressive symptoms at subsequent time points (higher walking steps were related to lower depressive symptoms) was most parsimonious and provided acceptable model fit. These results suggest that reduced physical activity may be a long-term consequence of depressive symptoms in older adults.

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Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso


The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time.


The results are based on 122 girls aged 11–12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends.


A linear growth model for adolescent girls’ and their best friends’ sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior. Mothers’ sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters’ sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa.


From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls’ sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends’ sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.

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Helena Kruusamäe, Merike Kull, Kerli Mooses, Eva-Maria Riso and Jaak Jürimäe


The 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, the first of its kind, aims to set baseline physical activity (PA) indicators using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system.


A research work group analyzed and selected data for the grade assignment meeting (GAM). During the GAM, 17 leading researchers and policy experts from Estonia assessed the data and assigned grades for each of the 9 PA indicators. In addition, recommendations were provided for further actions to improve the grades.


Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) were assigned as follows: 1) Overall PA (F); 2) Organized Sport (C); 3) Active Play [incomplete data (INC)]; 4) Active Transportation (INC); 5) Sedentary Behaviors (F); 6) Family and Peers (C); 7) School (C); 8) Community and the Built Environment (B); and 9) Government (C). An indicator was marked as incomplete (INC) when there was a lack of representative quality data.


Evidence suggests that PA levels of Estonian children remain very low, despite moderately supportive social, environmental, and regulatory factors. There are many challenges to overcome in supporting and promoting PA of children and youth (eg, cross-sectional cooperation, implementing interventions, changing social norms, empowerment of parents and educational institutions).