The purpose of this study was to compare gender role orientation and classification of elite female athletes aged between 18 to 30 years with age-matched female non-athletes in Turkey. Additionally, gender role differences with regard to types of sport in elite female athletes were examined. In this study 306 elite female athletes (Mage = 22.17 ± 2.51) and 264 female non-athletes (Mage = 21.34 ± 3.14) were participants of this study. Female athletes were selected from feminine sports; ballet dancing, aerobic dance, swimming, ice skating, tennis, volleyball (n = 70), from masculine sports; basketball, handball, soccer, wrestling, weight lifting, taekwando, karate, judo (n = 127), and from gender-neutral sports; track and field, shot putting and javelin throwing (n = 109). The Bern Sex Role Inventory was administered to assess the gender role orientations of participants. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that there were significant differences in gender role orientation between elite female athletes from different types of sport and female non-athletes (Hotelling’s T2 = 0.145; F(6,112) = 13.63; p<.01). In a follow-up univariate analysis, a significant difference in masculinity (F(3,569) = 26.07; p<.01) scores between female athletes from different types of sport and female non-athletes were observed. In addition, a chi square analysis showed a significant difference in gender role classifications between elite female athletes from different types of sport and female non-athletes (X2 = 68.22; p<. 01). Based on these findings it was concluded that there were significant differences in gender role orientations between Turkish elite female athletes and nonathletes.
Canan Koca and F. Hulya Asci
Atahan Altintaş and F. Hülya Aşçi
The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and pubertal status differences in the multiple dimensions of physical self-esteem of Turkish adolescents. The current study also aimed to investigate the gender differences in the physical self-esteem. The pubertal status of participants was determined by a self-report questionnaire. The Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and a weekly activity checklist were administered to 803 adolescents (M age = 13.10 ± 0.93). Analysis revealed significant main effects of physical activity on the multiple dimensions of physical self-esteem for both boys and girls. Follow-up analysis indicated that physically active boys and girls scored higher on almost all subscales of physical self-esteem than less active counterparts. The main effect of pubertal status and physical activity × pubertal status interaction were not significant either for boys or girls. Analysis also revealed significant gender differences in perceived body attractiveness, physical strength, physical condition, and physical self-worth subscales in favor of boys (p < .05).
Herbert W. Marsh, F. Hulya Asci and Ines Marco Tomas
The present investigation demonstrated cross-cultural support for convergent and discriminant validity of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) in a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations with responses to the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP). The sample, 1,041 Turkish university students in elective physical education courses from 10 Turkish universities, provided a test of the cross-cultural generalizability of responses to these two widely used English language instruments. In support of construct validity interpretations, matching PSDQ and PSPP factors were highly correlated. However, support for the PSPP was undermined by extremely high correlations among several of its factors, due in part to a substantial method effect associated with its idiosyncratic response scale. Results based on this study with Turkish university students largely replicate and extend the findings of Marsh et al. (1994) with Australian high school students. Based on psychometric, theoretical, cross-cultural, and practical considerations, the results support the use of the PSDQ in a wide variety of research and applied settings.