This study explored children’s experiences of participating in one-to-one physical training programs to identify how programs can best promote physical activity participation for children with cerebral palsy. A qualitative descriptive design with self-determination theory was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 children with cerebral palsy, age 8–14 years, who participated in a fundamental-movement-skills or lower-limb strength-training program. A hybrid approach of deductive and inductive analysis was used. Four themes developed: World around me (i.e., social/physical environments), Made for me (i.e., individualizing programs), Teach me how (i.e., teaching strategies facilitated skill learning), and I know me (i.e., sense of self). Results include recommendations for delivery of physical training programs. Using an individualized approach in a structured one-to-one program that employs skill-teaching strategies and self-reflection opportunities may provide a foundation to increase physical activity participation, related self-confidence, and desire to participate.
Sarpreet Kahlon, Kiah Brubacher-Cressman, Erica Caron, Keren Ramonov, Ruth Taubman, Katherine Berg, F. Virginia Wright and Alicia J. Hilderley
Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner and F. Virginia Wright
The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs for children/youth with physical disabilities. A search of the published literature was conducted and augmented by international expertise. A quality appraisal was conducted; only studies with quality ratings ≥60% informed our best practice recommendations. Seventeen studies were included using qualitative (n = 9), quantitative (n = 5), or mixed (n = 3) designs. Programs had a diversity of age groups, group sizes, and durations. Most programs were recreational level, involving both genders. Rehabilitation staff were the most common leaders. Outcomes focused on social skills/relationships, physical skill development, and psychological well-being, with overall positive effects shown in these areas. The best practice recommendations are consistent with an abilities-based approach emphasizing common group goals and interests; cooperative activities; mastery-oriented, individualized instruction; and developmentally appropriate, challenging activities. Results indicate that inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs are important for positive psychosocial and physical skill development of children/youth with physical disabilities.