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Kelly R. Evenson, Amy H. Herring and Fang Wen

Background:

Few studies measure physical activity objectively or at multiple time points during postpartum. We describe physical activity at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of women using both self-reported and objective measures.

Methods:

In total, 181 women completed the 3-month postpartum measures, and 204 women completed the 12-month postpartum measures. Participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 1 week and completed in-home interviews that included questions on physical activity. A cohort of 80 women participated at both time points. Poisson regression models were used to determine whether physical activity differed over time for the cohort.

Results:

For the cohort, average counts/minute were 364 at 3-months post-partum and 394 at 12-months postpartum. At both time periods for the cohort, vigorous activity averaged 1 to 3 minutes/day, and moderate activity averaged 16 minutes/day. Sedentary time averaged 9.3 hours at 3-months postpartum and 8.8 hours at 12-months postpartum, out of a 19-hour day. Average counts/minute increased and sedentary behavior declined from 3- to 12-months postpartum.

Conclusion:

Interventions are needed to help women integrate more moderate to vigorous physical activity and to capitalize on the improvements in sedentary behavior that occur during postpartum.

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Yi-Fen Shih, Ya-Fang Lee and Wen-Yin Chen

Context: Scapular proprioception is a key concern in managing shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). However, no study has examined the effect of elastic taping on scapular proprioception performance. Objective: To investigate the immediate effect of kinesiology taping (KT) on scapular reposition accuracy, kinematics, and muscle activation in individuals with SIS. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: Musculoskeletal laboratory, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan. Participants: Thirty overhead athletes with SIS. Interventions: KT or placebo taping over the upper and lower trapezius muscles. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measures were scapular joint position sense, measured as the reposition errors, in the direction of scapular elevation and protraction. The secondary outcomes were scapular kinematics and muscle activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior during arm elevation in the scapular plane (scaption). Results: Compared with placebo taping, KT significantly decreased the reposition errors of upward/downward rotation (P = .04) and anterior/posterior tilt (P = .04) during scapular protraction. KT also improved scapular kinematics (significant group by taping effect for posterior tilt, P = .03) during scaption. Kinesiology and placebo tapings had a similar effect on upper trapezius muscle activation (significant taping effect, P = .003) during scaption. Conclusions: Our study identified the positive effects of KT on scapular joint position sense and movement control. Future studies with a longer period of follow-up and clinical measurement might help to clarify the clinical effect and mechanisms of elastic taping in individuals with SIS.

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Kelly R. Evenson, Kimberly B. Morland, Fang Wen and Kathleen Scanlin

This study describes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior among New York City (NYC) residents 60 years and older and compared with national United States’ estimates. Adults aged 60 or older living in NYC (n = 760) were compared with similar aged adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 2,451 adults). Both groups wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week. The NYC sample recorded 13.2, 23.8, and 37.8 mean min/day of MVPA and the NHANES sample recorded 10.6, 21.1, and 39.3, depending on the definition. Sedentary behavior averaged 9.6 hr/day for the NYC sample and 9.3 hr/day for the NHANES sample. The NYC sample spent a longer proportion of time in sedentary behavior and light activities, but more time in MVPA than the NHANES sample. Urbanicity may explain some of the differences between the two samples.

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Rong-Ju Cherng, Hua-Fang Liao, Henry W.C. Leung and Ai-Wen Hwang

This study investigated the effectiveness of a16-week therapeutic horseback riding (THR) program on the gross motor function measures (GMFM) and the muscle tone of hip adductors in 14 children with spastic cerebral palsy (age: 3 years, one month to 11 years, 5 months). In the first phase of 16 weeks, nine of the children received the THR in addition to their regular treatment, while the rest received their regular treatment only. In the second phase (also 16 weeks), the arrangements were reversed. After THR, some of the children improved significantly in the GMFM E (walk/run/jump) score and the total score. The effect appears to be sustained for at least 16 weeks. No effect of THR on muscle tone was noted. We conclude that THR may be beneficial for some children with spastic cerebral palsy.

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Kelly R. Evenson, Fang Wen, Sarah M. Lee, Katie M. Heinrich and Amy Eyler

Background:

A Healthy People 2010 developmental objective (22-12) was set to increase the proportion of the nation's public and private schools that provide access to their physical activity spaces and facilities for all persons outside of normal school hours. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of indoor and outdoor facilities at schools and the availability of those facilities to the public in 2000 and 2006.

Methods:

In 2000 and 2006, the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) was conducted in each state and in randomly selected districts, schools, and classrooms. This analysis focused on the school level questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of public and nonpublic elementary, middle, and high schools (n = 921 in 2000 and n = 984 in 2006).

Results:

No meaningful changes in the prevalence of access to school physical activity facilities were found from 2000 to 2006, for youth or adult community sports teams, classes, or open gym.

Conclusions:

These national data indicate a lack of progress from 2000 and 2006 toward increasing the proportion of the nation's public and private schools that provide access to their physical activity facilities for all persons outside of normal school hours.