Enhanced expectancies are an important component of OPTIMAL theory and are thought to contribute to motor performance and learning. There is limited information, however, on the generalizability of OPTIMAL theory to highly skilled individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual illusions, specifically an Ebbinghaus illusion, on the performance and learning of an aiming task using highly skilled 10-m rifle and pistol shooters. Two groups of shooters with international experience were recruited and practiced with perceived larger and smaller targets. Our results indicated that participants who perceived the target larger reported higher self-efficacy immediately after practice. In addition, these participants had higher shooting performance during practice. Our retention test (24 hours later), however, did not produce differences in self-efficacy or shooting performance. Our data suggests that visual illusions are beneficial for motor performance in highly skilled shooters, but may not affect learning in those who are in the latter stages of learning. Further studies should continue examining the role of visual illusions for enhancing expectancies in highly skilled and experienced performers.
Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri
Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich and Farhad Ghadiri
The Test of Gross Motor Development–3rd Edition (TGMD-3) is an instrument for measuring gross motor development in children with and without a disability. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the TGMD-3 in 3- to 10-year-old Iranian children. The TGMD-3 was administered to 1,600 children (M age = 6.56 ± 2.29 years; 50% boys). The content validity of the TGMD-3 was established by five experts while its reliability was assessed through calculating internal consistency, test–retest, intra-rater, and inter-rater reliability coefficients. All reliability indices were excellent (>.82). The two-factor model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. Adequate fit indices were found for the two-factor model (χ2 (64) = 389.02, p < .05, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .056, goodnesss of fit index (GFI) = .96, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = .94, normed fit index (NFI) = .96, non-normed fit index (NNFI) = .96, comparative fit index (CFI) = .96, incremental fit index (IFI) = .96, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .03). An alternative one-factor model was also tested. Adequate fit indices in a one-factor model were found (χ2 (65) = 615.88, p = .0001, RMSEA = .07, GFI = .94, AGFI = .92, NFI = .98, NNFI = .98, CFI = .98, IFI = .98, SRMR = .03). The psychometric properties of the Persian version of TGMD-3 in Iranian children were supported and users can confidently use this test to evaluate gross motor development in Iranian children.