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  • Author: Felipe García-Pinillos x
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Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Felipe García-Pinillos and David Mora-López

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in standing long jump (SLJ) and to determine norm-referenced values for Spanish preschool children.

Method:

A total of 3555 children, aged 3–6 years, participated in this study (1746 girls and 1809 boys). To measure explosive leg power, the SLJ was used.

Results:

In the analysis of reliability using test-retest with 86 children (48% boys, age = 56.22 ± 10.34 months), the following descriptive results were obtained (mean, SD): at pretest = 76.53 ± 20.20 cm, at retest = 74.56 ± 21.12 cm (p = .124), and an intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.913 (95% confidence interval = 0.866–0.943). Boys exhibited a greater performance than girls at 3- to 5-years old, but no significant differences were found at 6 years old. In whole group, the SLJ performance was higher with increased age. However, no significant differences were found between boys aged 5 and 6 years.

Conclusion:

This study provides references values for muscle strength assessment through SLJ test carried out on a large sample of Spanish preschoolers.

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Felipe García-Pinillos, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Antonio Pantoja-Vallejo and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

Context: Plyometric training promotes a highly effective neuromuscular stimulus to improve running performance. Jumping rope (JR) involves mainly foot muscles and joints, due to the quick rebounds, and it might be considered a type of plyometric training for improving power and stiffness, some of the key factors for endurance-running performance. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of JR during the warm-up routine of amateur endurance runners on jumping performance, reactivity, arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. Methods: Athletes were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 45) group. Those from the control group were asked to maintain their training routines, while athletes from the experimental group had to modify their warm-up routines, including JR (2–4 sessions/wk, with a total time of 10–20 min/wk) for 10 weeks. Physical tests were performed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period and included jumping performance (countermovement-jump, squat-jump, and drop-jump tests), foot-arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated from a 30-cm drop jump. Results : The 2 × 2 analysis of variance showed significant pre–post differences in all dependent variables (P < .001) for the experimental group. No significant changes were reported in the control group (all P ≥ .05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between Δ3-km time trial and ΔRSI (r = −.481; P < .001) and ΔStiffness (r = −.336; P < .01). The linear-regression analysis showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI and ΔStiffness (R 2 = .394; P < .001). Conclusions : Compared with a control warm-up routine prior to endurance-running training, 10 weeks (2–4 times/wk) of JR training, in place of 5 minutes of regular warm-up activities, was effective in improving 3-km time-trial performance, jumping ability, RSI, and arch stiffness in amateur endurance runners. Improvements in RSI and arch stiffness were associated with improvements in 3-km time-trial performance.

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Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Francisco Fernández-Povedano, Jesús Salas-Sánchez, Felipe García-Pinillos and Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla

This study aimed to evaluate spatial and temporal perception in endurance runners as a mechanism of pacing control in comparison with other athletes (soccer players). A group of 38 endurance runners and 32 soccer players participated in this study. Runners displayed lower time differences and lower error than soccer players. Taking the athletic levels of endurance runners into consideration, significant differences (p = .011, Cohen’s d = 1.042) were found in the time differences (higher level group = 33.43 ± 29.43 vs. lower level group = 123.53 ±102.61). Significant correlations were found between time differences and performance in a Cooper test (r = −.546) and with the best time in a half marathon (r = .597). Temporal and spatial perception can be considered as a cognitive skill of endurance runners.

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Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Cristian Alvarez, Felipe García-Pinillos, Paulo Gentil, Jason Moran, Lucas A. Pereira and Irineu Loturco

Purpose: To compare the effects of plyometric drop jump (DJ) training against those induced by regular soccer training and assess the transference effect coefficient (TEC) of DJs (“trained exercises”) performed from 20- (DJ20) and 40-cm (DJ40) height boxes with respect to different physical qualities (jumping, linear and change of direction speed, kicking, endurance, and maximal strength) in youth male soccer players. Methods: Participants were randomly divided into a control group (n = 20; age: 13.5 [1.9] y) and a DJ training group (n = 19; age: 13.2 [1.8] y), and trained for 7 weeks. A 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with the within-subject factor time (preintervention and postintervention) and between-subject factor group (intervention vs control) was performed. To calculate the TECs between the trained exercises (DJ20 and DJ40) and the physical tests, the ratio between the “result gains” (effect size [ES]) in the analyzed physical qualities and the result gains in the trained exercises were calculated. The TECs were only calculated for variables presenting an ES ≥ 0.2. Results: Significant improvements (ES = 0.21–0.46; P < .05) were observed in the DJ training group, except in linear sprint performance. The control group improved only the maximal strength (ES = 0.28; P < .05). Significant differences were observed in all variables (ES = 0.20–0.55; P < .05) in favor of the DJ training group, except for maximal strength (group × time interaction). Conclusions: A plyometric training scheme based on DJs was able to significantly improve the physical performance of youth male soccer players. Overall, greater TECs were observed for DJ40 (0.58–1.28) than DJ20 (0.55–1.21).