Lower back pain is commonly associated with golfers. The study aimed: to determine whether thoracic- and lumbar-erector-spinae muscle display signs of muscular fatigue after completing a golf practice session, and to examine the effect of the completed practice session on club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables. Fourteen right-handed male golfers participated in the laboratory-based-study. Surface electromyography (EMG) data was collected from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic- and lumbar-erector-spinae muscle. Normalized root mean squared (RMS) EMG activation levels and performance variables for the golf swings were compared before and after the session. Fatigue was assessed using median frequency (MDF) and RMS during the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) performed before and after the session. No significant differences were observed in RMS thoracic- and lumbar-erector-spinae muscle activation levels during the five phases of the golf swing and performance variables before and after the session (p > .05). Significant changes were displayed in MDF and RMS when comparing the MVC performed before and after the session (p < .05). Fatigue was evident in the trail side of the erector-spinae muscle after the session.
Graeme G. Sorbie, Fergal M. Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker and Ukadike C. Ugbolue
Rhona Martin-Smith, Duncan S. Buchan, Julien S. Baker, Mhairi J. Macdonald, Nicholas F. Sculthorpe, Chris Easton, Allan Knox and Fergal M. Grace
Background: This study examined the impact of a 4-week school-based sprint interval training program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), daily physical activity (PA) behavior, and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) outcomes in adolescents. Methods: A total of 56 adolescents (22 females) were allocated to either an intervention (n = 22; 17.0 [0.3] y) or control group (n = 30; 16.8 [0.5] y). Intervention group performed 5 to 6, 30 second “all out” running sprints, interspersed with 30-second rest intervals, 3 times per week, for 4 consecutive weeks, whereas control group performed their normal physical education lessons. CRF was estimated from the 20-m multistage fitness test and PA behavior was determined using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure biochemical markers of CMR. Results: Significant group × time interactions were observed for CRF (5.03 [1.66 to 8.40]; P < .001; d = 0.95), sedentary time (136.15 [91.91 to 180.39]; P = .004; d = 1.8), moderate PA (57.20 [32.17 to 82.23]; P < .001; d = 1.5), vigorous PA (5.40 [4.22 to 6.57]; P < .001; d = 1.2), fasting insulin (0.37 [−0.48 to 1.21]; P = .01; d = 1.0), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (0.26 [0.15 to 0.42]; P < .001; d = 0.9), and clustered CMR score (0.22 [−0.05 to 0.68]; P < .001; d = 10.63). Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that 4 weeks of school-based sprint interval training improves CRF, improves PA profiles, and maintains CMR in adolescents during the school term.