**Purpose:** To investigate the criterion validity of a maximal incremental skating test performed on a slide board (SB). **Methods:** Twelve subelite speed skaters performed a maximal skating test on a treadmill and on a SB. Gas exchange threshold (GET), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and maximal variables were determined. **Results:** Oxygen uptake ($\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$) (31.0 ± 3.2 and 31.4 ± 4.1 mL·min^{−1}·kg^{−1}), percentage of maximal $\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ ($\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\mathrm{max}$) (66.3 ± 4 and 67.7 ± 7.1%), HR (153 ± 14 and 150 ±12 bpm), and ventilation (59.8 ± 11.8 and 57.0 ± 10.7 L·min^{−1}) at GET, and $\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ (42.5 ± 4.4 and 42.9 ± 4.8 mL·min^{−1}·kg^{−1}), percentage of $\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\mathrm{max}$ (91.1 ± 3.3 and 92.4 ± 2.1%), heart rate (HR) (178 ± 9 and 178 ± 6 bpm), and ventilation (96.5 ± 19.2 and 92.1 ± 12.7 L·min^{−1}) at RCP were not different between skating on a treadmill and on a SB. $\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\mathrm{max}$ (46.7 ± 4.4 vs 46.4 ±6.1 mL·min^{−1}·kg^{−1}) and maximal HR (195 ± 6 vs 196 ± 10 bpm) were not significantly different and correlated (*r* = .80 and *r* = .87, respectively; *P* < .05) between the treadmill and SB. $\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ at GET, RCP, and $\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\mathrm{max}$ obtained on a SB were correlated (*r* > .8) with athletes’ best times on 1500 m. **Conclusions:** The incremental skating test on a SB was capable to distinguish maximal ($\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ and HR) and submaximal ($\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$, % $\dot{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\mathrm{max}$, HR, and ventilation) parameters known to determine endurance performance. Therefore, the SB test can be considered as a specific and practical alternative to evaluate speed skaters.