Purpose: To assess the effects of a sleep hygiene strategy on parameters of sleep quality and quantity in youth elite rugby union players. Method: Eleven male players (age: 19.0 [1.4] y) undertook a sleep hygiene strategy composed of 2 theoretical sessions and 3 practical sessions over a 4-week period. Sleeping time, time in bed, total sleep time, sleep latency (SL), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset, and wake bouts were recorded with an actigraphic device during the 4-week sleep hygiene strategy (baseline) and during 4 weeks after the last intervention (postintervention). Results: At baseline, the overall group reported poor sleep quantity (total sleep time = 6:27 [0:30] min), but sleep quality was considered acceptable (SL = 0:18 [0:08] min and SE = 77.8% [5.8%]). Postintervention, the overall group showed a small improvement in SL (d = −0.23 [−0.42 to −0.04], P = .003) and SE (d = 0.30 [0.03 to 0.57], P = .0004). For individual responses, sleeping time, time in bed, and total sleep time were positively influenced in only 4, 3, and 5 players, respectively. For parameters of sleep quality, SL and SE were positively influenced in a majority of players (n = 7 and 8, respectively). The magnitude of difference between baseline and postintervention was strongly associated with baseline values in SE (r = −.86; P = .0005) and wake after sleep onset (r = −.87; P = .0007). Conclusion: A sleep hygiene strategy is efficient to improve sleep quality but not sleep quantity in young rugby union players. The strategy was more efficient in players with lower initial sleep quality and should be implemented prior to a high cumulative fatigue period.
Adrien Vachon, Fabien Sauvet, Florane Pasquier, Jean-Baptiste Paquet, and Laurent Bosquet
Florane Pasquier, Robin Pla, Laurent Bosquet, Fabien Sauvet, Mathieu Nedelec, and
Purpose: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common in swimmers. Sleep-hygiene strategies demonstrated beneficial effects on several sleep parameters. The present study assessed the impact of a multisession sleep-hygiene training course on sleep in elite swimmers. Methods: Twenty-eight elite swimmers (17  y) participated. The sleep-hygiene strategy consisted of 3 interventions. Sleep was measured by actigraphy for 7 days before the beginning of the intervention (baseline), after the first collective intervention (postintervention), after the second collective intervention (postintervention 2), and, finally, after the individual intervention (postintervention 3). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed concurrently. Swimmers were classified into 2 groups: nonsomnolent (baseline ESS score ≤ 10, n = 13) and somnolent (baseline ESS score ≥ 11, n = 15). Results: All swimmers had a total sleep time of <8 hours per night. Sixty percent of swimmers were moderately morning type. Later bedtime, less time in bed, and total sleep time were observed in the somnolent group compared with the nonsomnolent group at baseline. An interaction between training course and group factors was observed for bedtime, with a significant advance in bedtime between baseline, postintervention 2, and postintervention 3 for the somnolent group. Conclusions: The present study confirms the importance of implementing sleep-hygiene strategies, particularly in athletes with an ESS score ≥11. A conjunction of individual and collective measures (eg, earlier bedtime, napping, and delaying morning training session) could favor the total sleep time achieved.