Purpose: There is currently no scale assessing test anxiety in physical education (PE), despite the specificities of this class (e.g., body image, failure in front of peers). Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to develop a specific scale named the “Revised Test Anxiety and Regulatory Dimension of Anxiety in Physical Education” (RTAR-PE). Method: Self-report data were collected from 281 (Study 1) and 390 (Study 2) students in French schools (age range: 13–18 years). Results: Study 1 showed that the RTAR-PE scale has acceptable psychometric properties. Study 2 confirmed the results of Study 1 and showed the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validities of the scale. Gender differences were found, with girls showing higher PE test anxiety than boys. Discussion/Conclusion: The RTAR-PE is a newly available scale assessing the different facets of test anxiety in PE (worry, self-focus, bodily symptoms, somatic tension, and perceived control) considering the specificities of this class.
Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret and François Cury
Aïna Chalabaev, Philippe Sarrazin, Jeff Stone and François Cury
This research investigated stereotype threat effects on women’s performance in sports and examined the mediation of this effect by achievement goals. The influence of two stereotypes—relative to the poor athletic ability and the poor technical soccer ability of women—were studied. Fifty-one female soccer players were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, introducing the task as diagnostic of athletic ability, technical soccer ability, or sports psychology. Next, they filled out a questionnaire measuring achievement goals and performed a soccer dribbling task. Results showed that compared with the control condition, females’ performance significantly decreased in the athletic ability condition and tended to decrease in the technical soccer ability condition. Moreover, participants endorsed a performance-avoidance (relative to performance-approach) goal when the stereotypes were activated. However, this goal endorsement was not related to performance. The implications of these results for understanding the role of stereotypes in gender inequalities in sports are discussed.
Andrew J. Elliot, Francois Cury, James W. Fryer and Pascal Huguet
The present experiment was designed to examine the mediational role of self-handicapping in the relationship between achievement goals and performance on a sport-based activity (i.e., a basketball dribbling task). The achievement goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework were manipulated, behavioral and self-reported self-handicapping opportunities were provided, and performance attainment was assessed. Performance-avoidance goals led to worse performance and evoked higher levels of behavioral and self-reported self-handicapping than performance-approach and mastery goals. Both forms of self-handicapping were found to have independent mediational effects on decreased performance. Implications for the adoption of achievement goals and the use of self-handicapping strategies are discussed.