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Francis M. Kozub

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Francis M. Kozub

The purpose was to study expectations, persistence, and posttask attributions in 33 children (ages 9 to 15 years) with mental retardation (MR) and 40 children (ages 10 to 13 years) without disabilities during integrated physical education classes. Each of the participants (34 male and 39 females) viewed a video of another child successfully completing a game, responded to a question about expectations, and engaged in this same game alongside a peer. Results indicated that expectations did not differ between children with and without MR, χ2(1) = .35, p > .05. Following each child’s request to stop playing, a video of individual performance was displayed and an interview was conducted to determine posttask attributions. Learners with MR were less persistent than peers without disabilities, F(1, 68) = 4.60, p < .5, η2 = .06. Although less persistent, children with MR did not differ on posttask attributions from peers without disabilities, χ2(2) = 3.64, p > .05; χ2(2) = 1.74, p > .05.

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Francis M. Kozub and Christoph Lienert

This review explores the known literature with respect to attitudes and introduces a criterion paradigm to aid future researchers in studying links to attitude behavior. Prior writing has varied from a more atheoretical study of attitude behavior to a focus using theories from other disciplines, most notably the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). The premise of this paper is that attitude study should progress beyond basic description regarding profiles of pre and inservice teachers to the study of teacher and learner behaviors as a function of known attitude profiles and other mediating variables.

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Francis M. Kozub and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this study was to identify issues that may need to be addressed so that adolescents with disabilities are better integrated into interscholastic sports programs. The Coaches Attitude Toward Integration Questionnaire (CATIQ) was developed specifically to survey coaches’ attitudes about including adolescents with disabilities in interscholastic programs. After preliminary reliability checks were made and content validity established, the CATIQ was mailed to a random sample of 397 public school coaches. Results indicated that coaches tend to show agreement with the statement that adolescents with disabilities “have a right to sport opportunities” in interscholastic programs. However, coaches felt inadequately trained to address the needs of individuals with disabilities in integrated interscholastic sports settings.

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Hyun-Kyoung Oh and Francis M. Kozub

The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown’s (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n = 229) and the United States (U.S.; n = 139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with the larger study using a confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Internal consistency estimates (weighed Omega) for the five-item scale were 0.88 both the Korean and U.S. samples. The average variances extracted for the one factor were 0.59 for the total data set and 0.57 each for the Korean and U.S. samples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a five-item, unidimensional model for self-efficacy for the total sample: Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.97, Nonnormed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0.95, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98, and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.03. Only the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.12) fell below criterion levels of acceptable fit, with similar fit indices occurring in separate analyses of the Korean and U.S. samples. Invariance testing across the two samples supported metric invariance (similarity of factor loadings) but not scalar invariance (U.S. means higher on all five items). The factor structure for the self-efficacy scale provides an initial estimate of validity and internal consistency for use with different teacher groups.

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Samuel R. Hodge, Nathan M. Murata and Francis M. Kozub

The purpose was to develop an instrument for use in physical education teacher education (PETE) programs that would yield valid evidence of the judgments of PETE preservice teachers toward the inclusion of students with disabilities into general physical education classes. Both the conceptualization that judgments represent the cognitive expressions of attitudes (Ajzen, 2001; Sherif & Hovland, 1961) and focus group discussions were used to create the Physical Educators’ Judgments About Inclusion (PEJI) instrument. Following content validation procedures, we administered PEJI to 272 PETE preservice teachers. Subsequent principal component analysis to generate construct validity evidence indicated 15 items should be retained; they collectively explained 53% of the variance using a three-component model. Dimensions of the PEJI pertained to judgments about inclusion, acceptance, and perceived training needs. Alpha coefficients for the three subscales ranged from .64 to .88.

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David L. Porretta, Francis M. Kozub and Fabio L. Lisboa

Articles related to adapted physical activity appearing in professional journals (1984-1998) were analyzed. Of the 111 articles reviewed, 30 (27%), 39 (35%), and 42 (38%) were published during the 1984-1988, 1989-1993, and 1994-1998 time periods, respectively. Two thirds of the studies concerned conditions/demographics/practices rather than attitudes. Only 34 (31%) surveys were mailed as opposed to other forms of delivery (e.g., face to face interviews, telephone, etc.). While validity and reliability reporting increased over the three time periods, in total, only 59 (53%) reported validity and 62 (56%) reported reliability. A sample frame was clearly identified in only 43 (39%) studies. Only 7 (6%) articles addressed nonresponse bias, a critical element in survey research design. Future investigators need to report validity and reliability, clearly define sample frames, and account for nonresponse bias.

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Hyun-Kyoung Oh, Dong-Chul Seo and Francis M. Kozub

The purpose of this study was to explore the original version of Mitchell and Hastings’s (1998) Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale (ERCBS) and estimate validity and reliability of a revised version containing 29 items. The Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale–Korean (ERCBS-K) was studied using 445 in-service physical educators (228 females; 217 males). Data were collected using onsite administration as well as mail survey administration procedures. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses results supported a five-factor, 28-item scale (ERCBS-K). Acceptable internal consistency coefficients were found for each of the subscales of the ERCBS-K (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.71 to 0 .87).

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Lauren J. Lieberman, Cathy Houston-Wilson and Francis M. Kozub

The purpose of this study was to examine barriers perceived by teachers when including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Teachers (52 males, 96 females) who had children with visual impairments in their physical education classes were surveyed prior to in-service workshop participation. The most prevalent barriers were professional preparation, equipment, programming, and time. A logistic regression analysis, regressing gender, in-service training, number of students with visual impairments taught, masters degree attained, masters hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), undergraduate hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), and years of experience failed to indicate significant predictors of professional preparation as a barrier, Model χ2 (6, n = 148) = 4.48, p > .05.

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Francis M. Kozub, Hyun-Kyoung Oh and Robert A. Rider

The purpose of this study was to estimate validity and reliability for RT31 monitors when worn by 19 school age participants with visual impairments during physical education. Values from RT3 monitors were compared to observational data using the Children’s Physical Activity Form (CPAF). Estimates of reliability for the RT3 monitors were calculated by placing two monitors on participants during data collection and then calculating intraclass correlations using repeated measures. Validity estimates between RT3 monitors and CPAF scores resulted in a strong relationship (R = .89, p < .001, n = 19). Validity and reliability estimates indicate that the RT3 is a useful tool for measuring short term physical activity levels in adolescents with visual impairments.