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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

This study analyzed the physical fitness performance of 141 youngsters with spinal neuromuscular conditions, by age, sex, and severity of condition, and compared the performance of these subjects with 1,192 normal youngsters on selected physical fitness test items. Boys and girls, ages 10-17, with paraplegic spinal neuromuscular conditions were tested on 11 physical fitness test items which were modified, as necessary, for their participation. Where comparisons were appropriate, the scores of normal subjects of the same sex and age generally exceeded significantly those of the paraplegic subjects. There was a trend for paraplegic subjects to possess larger skinfolds than normal youngsters, and, where differences existed in skinfolds, the skinfolds of older paraplegic subjects exceeded those of younger paraplegic subjects. Few significant sex and age differences emerged for the paraplegic group on nonskinfold (performance) items. The test battery administered did not discriminate among the performance of subjects with various levels of spinal lesions at or below the sixth thoracic vertebra.

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Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick

This manuscript provides information on the test items and standards used to assess flexibility and range of motion in the Brockport Physical Fitness Test. Validity, attainability, and reliability of the back saver sit and reach, the shoulder stretch, the modified Apley test, the modified Thomas test, and the Target Stretch Test are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the utility of these tests for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairments (blindness), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, or congenital anomalies or amputations. Suggestions for future research are provided.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

In order to enhance the physical fitness development of individuals with selected handicapping conditions. Winnick and Short (1984b) published a manual which presented the Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test and training program. This article presents criteria and supporting technical information pertaining to the selection of test items.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

In order to compare their physical fitness, the UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 203 retarded and nonretarded subjects with cerebral palsy from both segregated and integrated settings throughout the United States. The test was administered to subjects between the ages of 10 and 17 by professional persons prepared as field testers. Subjects were free from multiple handicapping conditions other than mild mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the performance of younger subjects on dominant grip strength. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the scores of younger subjects on the softball throw and flexed arm hang. No significant differences between retarded and nonretarded subjects at the .01 level of significance were found on any of the test items on the UNIQUE test. The factor structures of both retarded and nonretarded groups were identical with regard to the items that loaded on specific physical fitness factors.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

The Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 153 hard of hearing, 892 deaf, and 686 hearing subjects in the age range of 10 to 17 years to contrast their physical fitness status. Relatively few significant differences between groups were found. Only on the sit-up test did hearing subjects surpass the performance of at least one of the two auditory impaired groups in at least two of the three age groups contrasted. Although some gender and age interactions were found on other test items, no clear pattern relative to a comparison of hearing and auditory impaired groups occurred. Age and gender performances within the auditory impaired groups were similar to those expected of hearing groups.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

In this manuscript, the conceptual framework for the Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT) is presented. The framework provides the basis for the selection of test items and standards to assess health-related physical fitness of youngsters with disabilities. The framework defines and describes the relationships among health, physical activity, and health-related physical fitness and presents the process used for personalizing health-related criterion-referenced physical fitness testing and assessment for youngsters with disabilities.

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Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick

This manuscript examines the validity and reliability of the tests used to measure body composition in the Brockport Physical Fitness Test. More specifically, information is provided on skinfold measures and body mass index and their applicability to youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairment (blindness), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, or congenital anomalies or amputations. The rationale for criterion-referenced standards for these test items for youngsters with these disabilities is provided along with some data on attainability of those standards. Possible ideas for future research are recommended.

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Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick

This article describes the procedures and rationale for the selection of test items and criterion-referenced standards associated with the aerobic functioning component of the Brockport Physical Fitness Test. Validity and reliability information is provided for the 1-mile run/walk, the PACER (16-m and 20-m), and the Target Aerobic Movement Test. The relevance of these test items and standards for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairments (blindness), cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries, and for those with congenital anomalies or amputations is highlighted. Information on the attainability of the selected standards also is provided. Possible topics for future research are suggested.

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Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick

This manuscript provides information on the rationale for the selection of the muscular strength and endurance test items associated with the Brockport Physical Fitness Test for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairment (blindness), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, or congenital anomalies or amputations. Information on the validity, attainability, and reliability of the 16 tests and their criterion-referenced standards is provided. Suggestions are made for future research.

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James H. Rimmer, Fiona Connor-Kuntz, Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the Target Aerobic Movement Test (TAMT)1 in a group of children and adolescents with spina bifida (n = 32). Thirty-two children (11 subjects-thoracic lesion, 21 subjects-lumbar lesion) volunteered for the study. Results indicated there were no significant differences in the proportion of subjects who passed Test 1 or Test 2 (p > .05). Twenty-seven out of 28 eligible subjects (96%) on Test 1 and 25 of 27 eligible subjects (93%) on Test 2 met the criteria for successful completion of the TAMT. The TAMT appears to be a reliable and feasible test for measuring aerobic behavior in children and adolescents with spina bifida. Future research should focus on studying the feasibility of the TAMT with other populations with disabilities and to also determine if the test can become a more refined discriminator of aerobic behavior and aerobic capacity.