While job stress in various occupations has gained the attention of experts in both academic research and occupational health care, there is a dearth of information about stress levels among managers in the sport and recreation industry, especially in women and in the Asian culture. Because managers are an important force in delivering sport and recreation services to citizens, the purposes of this study were to examine the job stress and job satisfaction of sport and recreation managers in Hong Kong, and to discern the relationship between stress and job satisfaction. Sport and recreation managers experienced moderate stress (M = 3.63, SD = 0.67) and were satisfied with their jobs (M = 3.79, SD = 0.64). Work relationships (Beta = −.44, p <.001), organizational climate (Beta = −.36, p <.001), home/work balance (Beta = .26, p <.01), and personal responsibility (Beta = .23, p <.01) were important determinants of their job satisfaction. A comprehensive understanding of job stress and job satisfaction is important for minimizing the impact of potential stressors on today’s workforce.
Mei Du, Mee-Lee Leung, Frank H. Fu and Lynda Ransdell
C. Buz Swanik, Scott M. Lephart, Frank P. Giannantonio and Freddie H. Fu
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury disrupts static and dynamic knee restraints, compromising functional stability. Deafferentation of ACL mechan-oreceptors alters the spinal reflex pathways to motor nerves and muscle spindles in addition to the cortical pathways for conscious and unconscious appreciation of proprioception and kinesthesia. These pathways are required by the feed-forward and feedback neuromuscular control systems to dynamically stabilize joints. Feed-forward motor control is responsible for preparatory muscle activity, while feedback motor control regulates reactive muscle activity. The level of muscle activation, preparatory or reactive, influences muscular stiffness, thereby providing dynamic restraint for the ACL-deficient athlete. Rehabilitation protocols should incorporate activities that enhance muscle stiffness while encouraging adaptations to peripheral afferents, spinal reflexes, and cortical motor patterns. Four elements crucial for reestablishing neuromuscular control and functional stability are proprioceptive and kinesthetic awareness, dynamic stability, preparatory and reactive muscle characteristics, and conscious and unconscious functional motor patterns.
Ann V. Rowlands, Roger G. Eston, Lobo Louie, David K. Ingledew, Kwok K. Tong and Frank H. Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between habitual physical activity and body fatness in Hong Kong Chinese children. Fifty children aged 8–11 yrs wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days to determine physical activity levels. The sum of seven skinfolds was used to estimate body fatness. Activity counts summed over 1 day (299384 – 140427, mean – SD) were similar to activity counts recorded in previous studies. Activity correlated significantly negatively with sum of skinfolds in boys (r = –.50, N = 24, P < .05) but not girls. In conclusion this study supports a negative relationship between physical activity and body fatness in Hong Kong Chinese boys.
Lobo Louie, Roger G. Eston, Ann. V. Rowlands, Kwok Keung Tong, David K. Ingledew and Frank H. Fu
This study compared the accuracy of heart rate monitoring, pedometry, and uniaxial and triaxial aecelerometry for estimating oxygen consumption during a range of activities in Hong Kong Chinese boys. Twenty-one boys, aged 8–10 years, walked and ran on a treadmill, played catch, played hopscotch, and sat and crayoned. Heart rate, uniaxial and triaxial accelerometry counts, pedometry counts, and scaled oxygen uptake (SVO2) were measured. All measures correlated significantly with VO2 scaled to body mass−0.75 (SVO2). The best predictor of SVO2 was triaxial accelerometry (R2 = 0.89). Correlations in this study were comparable with those in a previous study that used identical methods on 30 UK boys and girls. These results provide further confirmation that triaxial accelerometry provides the best assessment of energy expenditure and that pedometry offers potential for large population studies.