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Anja Carlsohn, Susanne Nippe, Juliane Heydenreich and Frank Mayer

The study was conducted to investigate the quantity and the main food sources of carbohydrate (CHO) intake of junior elite triathletes during a short-term moderate (MOD; 12 km swimming, 100 km cycling, 30 km running per wk) and intensive training period (INT; 23 km swimming, 200 km cycling, 45 km running per wk). Self-reported dietary-intake data accompanied by training protocols of 7 male triathletes (18.1 ± 2.4 yr, 20.9 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were collected on 7 consecutive days during both training periods in the same competitive season. Total energy and CHO intake were calculated based on the German Food Database. A paired t test was applied to test for differences between the training phases (α = .05). CHO intake was slightly higher in INT than in MOD (9.0 ± 1.6 g · kg−1 · d−1 vs. 7.8 ± 1.6 g · kg−1 · d−1; p = .041). Additional CHO in INT was mainly ingested during breakfast (115 ± 37 g in MOD vs. 175 ± 23 g in INT; p = .002) and provided by beverages (280.5 ± 97.3 g/d vs. 174.0 ± 58.3 g/d CHO; p = .112). Altogether, main meals provided approximately two thirds of the total CHO intake. Pre- and postexercise snacks additionally supplied remarkable amounts of CHO (198.3 ± 84.3 g/d in INT vs. 185.9 ± 112 g/d CHO in MOD; p = .231). In conclusion, male German junior triathletes consume CHO in amounts currently recommended for endurance athletes during moderate to intensive training periods. Main meals provide the majority of CHO and should therefore not be skipped. CHO-containing beverages, as well as pre- and postexercise snacks, may provide a substantial amount of CHO intake in training periods with high CHO requirements.

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Katharina Diehl, Manfred Mayer, Frank Mayer, Tatiana Görig, Christina Bock, Raphael M. Herr and Sven Schneider


In physical activity (PA) counseling, primary care physicians (PCPs) play a key role because they are in regular contact with large sections of the population and are important contact people in all health-related issues. However, little is known about their attitudes, knowledge, and perceived success, as well as about factors associated with the implementation of PA counseling.


We collected data from 4074 PCPs including information on physician and practice characteristics, attitudes toward cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, and measures used during routine practice to prevent CVD. Here, we followed widely the established 5 A’s strategy (Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange).


The majority (87.2%) of PCPs rated their own level of competence in PA counseling as ‘high,’ while 52.3% rated their own capability to motivate patients to increase PA as ‘not good.’ Nine of ten PCPs routinely provided at least 1 measure of the modified 5 A’s strategy, while 9.5% routinely used all 5 intervention strategies.


The positive attitude toward PA counseling among PCPs should be supported by other stakeholders in the field of prevention and health promotion. An example would be the reimbursement of health counseling services by compulsory health insurance, which would enable PCPs to invest more time in individualized health promotion.

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Juliane Müller, Steffen Müller, Josefine Stoll, Michael Rector, Heiner Baur and Frank Mayer

Stability of the trunk is relevant in determining trunk response to different loading in everyday tasks initiated by the limbs. Descriptions of the trunk’s mechanical movement patterns in response to different loads while lifting objects are still under debate. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of weight on 3-dimensional segmental motion of the trunk during 1-handed lifting. Ten asymptomatic subjects were included (29 ± 3 y; 1.79 ± 0.09 m; 75 ± 14 kg). Subjects lifted 3× a light and heavy load from the ground up onto a table. Three-dimensional segmental trunk motion was measured (12 markers; 3 segments: upper thoracic area [UTA], lower thoracic area [LTA], lumbar area [LA]). Outcomes were total motion amplitudes (ROM;[°]) for anterior flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of each segment. The highest ROM was observed in the LTA segment (anterior flexion), and the smallest ROM in the UTA segment (lateral flexion). ROM differed for all planes between the 3 segments for both tasks (P < .001). There were no differences in ROM between light and heavy loads (P > .05). No interaction effects (load × segment) were observed, as ROM did not reveal differences between loading tasks. Regardless of weight, the 3 segments did reflect differences, supporting the relevance of multisegmental analysis.

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Caroline Divert, Heiner Baur, Guillaume Mornieux, Frank Mayer and Alain Belli

When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m·s–1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe.

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Anja Carlsohn, Friederike Scharhag-Rosenberger, Michael Cassel, Josefine Weber, Annette de Guzman Guzman and Frank Mayer

Adequate energy intake in adolescent athletes is considered important. Total energy expenditure (TEE) can be calculated from resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity level (PAL). However, validated PAL recommendations are available for adult athletes only. Purpose was to comprise physical activity data in adolescent athletes and to establish PAL recommendations for this population. In 64 competitive athletes (15.3 ± 1.5yr, 20.5 ± 2.0kg/m2) and 14 controls (15.1 ± 1.1yr, 21 ± 2.1kg/m2) TEE was calculated using 7-day activity protocols validated against doubly-labeled water. REE was estimated by Schofield-HW equation, and PAL was calculated as TEE:REE. Observed PAL in adolescent athletes (1.90 ± 0.35) did not differ compared with controls (1.84 ± 0.32, p = .582) and was lower than recommended for adult athletes by the WHO. In conclusion, applicability of PAL values recommended for adult athletes to estimate energy requirements in adolescent athletes must be questioned. Instead, a PAL range of 1.75–2.05 is suggested.