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Fu-Chen Chen and Sheng-Kuang Wu

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived hole size (perception), performance, and body movement (action) in golf putting for children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC). Forty-eight children (24 probable DCD, 24 TDC) performed putting in easy and hard conditions. Body movement was measured during putting, performance was measured as the distance between ball and hole, and perceived hole size was recorded using a Microsoft Paint drawing exercise 1 m away from the hole. The present results revealed that perceived hole size was positively related to putting performance, body movement was negatively associated with putting performance, and that there were negative correlations between body movement and perceived hole size. While children with probable DCD tended to perceive the hole as smaller, perform worse, and show more body movement, TDC exhibited the opposite. These findings help characterize the relationships between perception, performance, and action in children with probable DCD and TDC during golf putting.

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Ching-yi Wu, Shih-han Chou, Mei-ying Kuo, Chiung-ling Chen, Tung-wu Lu and Yang-chieh Fu

Stroke patients are often left with hemiplegia or hemiparesis of the upper extremities, severely limiting the ability to perform bimanual and functional activities. No studies have investigated how stroke patients adapt their movements to changes in object size in functionally asymmetric bimanual tasks. The influence of object size on intralimb and interlimb coordination during an asymmetrical, functional bimanual task was examined in patients with left cerebral vascular accidents (LCVA) and healthy controls. Fourteen LCVA patients and 13 age-matched controls were instructed to reach to grasp a large and a small jar with the right/affected hand and to open the cap with the other hand. Movement kinematics was analyzed for intralimb coordination (spatial and temporal planning of reaching and grasping) and interlimb coordination (bimanual synchronization and temporal association of the hands). The results demonstrate a spatial adaptation of reaching in the affected hand to the object size and deficits in temporal planning of grasping with the affected hand to object size in the stroke patients. Movement adaptations of the unaffected hand in the stroke patients were similar to those in the healthy adults. Bimanual coordination was independent of object size for both groups.

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Shin-Tsu Chang, Chih-Hung Ku, Ming-Fu Hsieh, Liang-Cheng Chen, Heng-Yi Chu, Cheng-Chiang Chang and Kao-Chung Tsai


The multifidus muscle plays a role in controlling lumbosacral position and postural sway. One of its attachment sites is the exact site of spina bifida occulta (SBO).


To investigate the role of the muscle for postural control in SBO.


Cross-sectional cohort.


Eighty subjects with SBO (38 in minor; 42 in major) and controls.



Main Outcome Measures:

Subjects stood upright on a platform at 0° and on an inclined surface (10° and 20°) with feet in plantarflexion/dorsiflexion, together with eyes open and closed. The platform system measured posture to obtain sway area and sway mean for statistics.


Upon sway area/mean, the group differences of major/minor SBO vs. control were all significant. Sway means of minor SBO were lower than those of major SBO at corresponding inclined degrees.


Subjects with SBO demonstrated increased sway as compared to controls.