The purpose was to describe the differences in practice success of high- and low-skilled students to varied instructional tasks and feedback of two physical education teachers. Four to five lessons on striking with implements were presented, and feedback was consistently individual and specific. Subjects were four high-skilled and four low-skilled fourth graders randomly selected from two intact physical education classes. The teacher variable studied was the amount and kind of teacher feedback given to subjects during practice. Student variables included: (a) the success frequencies of practice in response to instructional tasks, and (b) practice success frequencies achieved immediately after receiving teacher feedback. Results showed that successful task engagement was 70% for low-skilled students and 86% for high-skilled students in response to instructional tasks. After receiving teacher feedback, low-skilled students increased their practice success to 75% (5% increase); high-skilled students declined to 84% (2% decrease).
The Short Term Relationship of Teacher Feedback and Student Practice
G. Linda Rikard
The Relationship of Teachers’ Task Refinement and Feedback to Students’ Practice Success
G. Linda Rikard
This study examined the relationship of teachers’ task refinement and feedback to the practice success of low- and high-skilled students. Data were gathered from two introductory striking units taught to fourth graders by physical education specialists. Four high- and 4 low-skilled subjects from intact classes were randomly selected in order to examine practice success when receiving refining tasks as compared to when receiving extending and applying tasks, both before and after teacher feedback. Success for low-skilled subjects remained about the same (74%) in response to both refinement and extending and applying tasks. Modest increases in success occurred when refining tasks were followed by specific feedback. High-skilled subjects’ practice success improved by 14% when they received refining tasks, as compared to when they received extending and applying tasks; however, no increase in success was experienced when teacher feedback followed refining tasks. Feedback following extending and applying tasks did result in increases in practice success for these subjects.
Obstacles to Professional Development: Interns’ Desire to Fit in, Get Along, and Be Real Teachers
G. Linda Rikard and Sharon M. Knight
This study examined physical education interns’ beliefs and perceptions about their student teaching internships, thus providing indicators regarding their developmental growth as teachers. Data were acquired from 46 student teacher interns from focus group interviews and Fuller’s Teacher Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ). Developmental stage theories from the work of Hunt (1966), Kohlberg (1984), Loevinger (1976), and Fuller (1969) were used to frame the concept of developmental growth of student teachers. Data indicated interns’ primary desires were to fit into the school organization, to get along with clinical teachers, and to gain pupil cooperation. Constraints to teaching included difficulties establishing or implementing a management system, the absence of timely supervision from clinical teachers, and feeling like strangers in the school organization. The ability of interns to resolve these constraints directly contributed to their self-image as teachers. Suggestions are provided for advancing interns’ developmental growth stages beyond initial levels.
Cooperating Teachers: Insight into Their Preparation, Beliefs, and Practices
G. Linda Rikard and Mary Lou Veal
Twenty-three physical education cooperating teachers were interviewed in order to examine their preparation for becoming supervisors and their supervisory beliefs and practices. Most cooperating teachers had no formal preparation for their supervisory roles and shared no common technical language. Instead, they applied Lortie’s (1975) apprenticeship of observation by acquiring supervisory knowledge and images of supervision primarily from memories of their own student teaching supervision and their experiences as teachers. These cooperating teachers assumed one of three supervisory styles with student teachers: (a) “do it your way,” (b) “do it my way,” and (c) “we’ll do it together.” The feedback ranged from very little feedback to providing both positive and negative feedback to student teachers. This study indicates an urgent need to establish a model of systematic, data-based supervision for all cooperating teacher. Suggestions for changes in physical education supervision are included.
Experiencing the Portfolio Process during the Internship: A Comparative Analysis of Two PETE Portfolio Models
Terry A. Senne and G. Linda Rikard
A comparative analysis of two PETE portfolio models was conducted to determine the impact on intern perceptions of the value of the teaching portfolio, intern professional growth, and portfolio representation in single and dual internship site placements. The portfolio model served as the curricular intervention during the student teaching experience of 67 interns in two PETE programs. A mixed method was used to discern the impact of each portfolio model. The Defining Issues Test, weekly reflection logs, and a culminating questionnaire served as data sources. One program employed extensive reflective writings and single placement sites; the other program used less extensive reflective practice and dual placement sites. Although interns showed no change in moral judgment reasoning, most valued the portfolio process as an indicator of professional growth. Differences in reflective practice and similarities in dual versus single-site placements were noted.
A Developmental Intervention Via the Teaching Portfolio: Employing the Teaching/Learning Framework
Terry A. Senne and G. Linda Rikard
Nine teacher candidates from each of two PETE programs, University A and University B, developed teaching portfolios over three consecutive semesters of comparable courses. University A teacher candidates underwent a deliberate, developmental portfolio intervention based on the Teaching/Learning Framework (Sprinthall & Thies-Sprinthall 1983), while University B candidates employed a series of portfolio categories based on reflective practice theory (Wallace, 1991) to guide their developmental growth. All teacher candidates completed Rest’s (1986) Defining Issues Test (DIT) to determine one dimension of teacher developmental growth, moral/ethical judgment. They shared perceptions of the portfolio process through focus group interviews and portfolio questionnaires as qualitative data sources. Findings indicated a significant within-group difference for University A teacher candidates, while both university groups demonstrated similarities in perceptions of the portfolio process. A crucial programmatic difference between institutions was University A’s use of the Teaching/Learning Framework, which likely led to statistically significant, positive growth on DIT gain scores. This is the first study of its kind in PETE, indicating positive teacher development from a specific and deliberate intervention designed to guide the portfolio process.
Effective Mentoring: Critical to the Professional Development of First Year Physical Educators
G. Linda Rikard and Dominique Banville
The first year of teaching is a critical time for professional growth and teacher development requiring emotional and pedagogical support from an experienced mentor. To serve this need, many school districts and counties across the US have developed induction programs for beginning teachers. This study examined 20 First Year Teachers’ (FYT’s) experiences in a mentoring induction program conducted from 2006 to 2008. Data included phone interviews, questionnaires, and one-on-one interviews. Kram’s mentoring framework provided the theoretical model for describing stages of mentor-mentee relationships. In addition, a Continuum of mentor practices was developed to categorize the levels of mentor effectiveness as described by FYTs. Based on their perceptions, the effectiveness of mentoring practices varied greatly for these participants: nine teachers received adequate mentoring, while the remaining 11 teachers’ experiences indicated deficiencies. Mentors were trained and specifically matched with FYTs, yet, findings indicated that accountability measures were needed to adequately serve most of these FYTs.
Characteristics of PETE Doctoral Level Institutions: Descriptions of Programs, Faculty and Doctoral Students
B. Ann Boyce and G. Linda Rikard
The present study of Doctoral PETE programs provided an extensive description of demographic data which included: (a) doctoral program characteristics, (b) faculty, and (c) doctoral graduates. Several data sets from the academic years of 2005–06 and 2008–09 as well as selected summary data from 1996–97 through 2008–09 were used to make comparisons and identify emerging trends. The number of 23 doctoral programs (2008–09) has decreased slightly compared with the 24 programs in 2005–06. Information on faculty and doctoral student ethnicity revealed that doctoral graduates were more diverse than D-PETE faculty. Almost 90% of doctoral graduates enter positions in higher education. There was a slight increase in the number of doctoral students who matriculated over time. Lastly, our graduates including non U.S. graduates are extremely marketable because of the high demand for pedagogists in higher education.
A Comparison of Supply and Demand for PETE Professionals in Higher Education in the United States
B. Ann Boyce and G. Linda Rikard
This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996–97 through 2008–09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005–06 and 2008–09) to determine the supply of entry level doctoral candidates and experienced job seekers, and (c) the number of advertised positions in pedagogy and outcomes of those position searches. A general comparison of the two academic years revealed: over half of the positions were filled with both graduates and ABD pedagogists and a third of position searches failed. The following conclusions were made demand was greater than supply and ABD’s in D-PETE filled pedagogy positions. Lastly, the impact of these failed searches must be examined as it relates to the profession.
The Doctorate in Physical Education Teacher Education in the 21st Century: Contexts and Challenges
Phillip Ward, Sue Sutherland, Marianne L. Woods, B. Ann Boyce, Grace Goc Karp, Michael Judd, Melissa Parker, G. Linda Rikard, and Christina Sinclair
In this paper, we situate the findings from the studies in this thematic issue within the current policy environment that influences the status, rankings, and funding contexts for doctoral programs in Physical Education Teacher Education within and across institutions. We identify common challenges that these doctoral programs are confronted with including the recruitment of doctoral students, the lack of diversity of faculty and students, the purpose of the doctoral degree, and core content knowledge for the degree. Throughout the discussion we provide questions and recommendations for the field to consider.