Context: The evaluation of the wrist strength and proprioception gives clinicians and researchers information about effectiveness of their rehabilitation protocol or helps diagnosis of various neuromuscular and somatosensorial disorders. Isokinetic dynamometers are considered the gold standard for these evaluations. However, the studies about test–retest reliability of isokinetic dynamometer are inadequate. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the test–retest reliability of isokinetic wrist strength and proprioception measurements using the Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. Design: Test–retest reliability study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Thirty participants were enrolled (age 23.2 [2.8] y, height 171.1  cm, weight 66.6 [11.6] kg) in this study. Intervention: Cybex isokinetic dynamometer was used for strength and proprioception measurements. Main Outcome Measures: Concentric flexion–extension strength test was performed at 90°/s angular velocity, and eccentric flexion–extension strength test was performed at 60°/s angular velocity. The proprioception of the wrist was assessed via active joint position sense. The 30° extension of the wrist, which is accepted as the functional position of the wrist, was selected as the targeted angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) method was used for test–retest analysis (P < .05). Results: The active joint position sense measurements of dominant (ICC2,1: .821) and nondominant (ICC2,1: .763) sides were found to have good test–retest reliability. Furthermore, with the exception of dominant eccentric extension strength (moderate reliability) (ICC2,1: .733), eccentric and concentric flexion (dominant: ICC2,1 = .890–.844; nondominant: ICC2,1 = .800–.898, respectively), and extension (dominant: ICC2,1 = .791 [concentric], nondominant: ICC2,1 = .791–.818, respectively) strength measurements of both sides were found to have good reliability. Conclusions: This study shows that the Cybex isokinetic dynamometer is a reliable method for measuring wrist strength and proprioception. Isokinetic dynamometers can be used clinically for diagnosis or rehabilitation in studies which contain wrist proprioception or strength measurements.
Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel
Sinem Suner-Keklik, Gamze Cobanoglu-Seven, Nihan Kafa, Mustafa Ugurlu and Nevin Atalay Guzel
Context: Proprioception is the basic element of the spontaneous control of movement, balance and joint stability. Therefore, it is necessary for the execution of walking and daily and sport activities. Loss of proprioception of the knee, which may cause a new injury, is important to evaluate the position sense of the joint during the rehabilitation period. However, the evaluation methods that are used are very expensive, complicated and nonportable, or the measuring method is difficult to implement. Objective: We demonstrated the validity and reliability of knee proprioception measurements performed in the open kinetic chain position and closed kinetic chain position with a dual inclinometer. Design: We assessed the validity and intratester reliability of a digital inclinometer for measuring the knee joint position sense in different positions. Setting: Clinical laboratory. Participants: We enrolled 22 participants (age = 21.8 ± 0.95 y, height = 172 ± 9.1 cm, weight = 64.9 ± 14 kg) into the study. Intervention: The same investigator used an inclinometer to take knee proprioception measurements in open and closed kinetic chain positions. Main Outcome Measures: The relative angular error was calculated by taking the arithmetic average of the difference between the target angle and reproduced angle and was the main outcome measure. Results: We found that the dynamometer-inclinometer had a moderate ICC value (ICC = 0.594, SEM = 1.60, P = .005), whereas inclinometer t1 vs inclinometer t2 (ICC = 0.778, SEM = 0.62, P < 0.001) and closed kinetic chain position t1 and closed kinetic chain position t2 (ICC = 0.888, SEM = 0.63, P < 0.001) had high ICC values. Conclusion: Knee proprioception measurements performed with a dual inclinometer were reliable in the closed kinetic chain position in healthy, sedentary individuals and were valid and reliable in the open kinetic chain position.