In recent years, Division I athletics programs have hired counseling or clinical psychologists as a resource for student-athletes who need assistance with clinical issues, personal difficulties, and performance issues. This article documents the evolution of this type of position at Virginia Tech and includes a discussion of the goals of the clinical sport psychologist position, an overview of the daily activities the position entails, and a discussion of the issues that comprise the assessment, conceptualization, and treatment of student-athlete concerns. Models for conceptualizing and delivering sport psychology interventions are also discussed. Evidence indicates that having access to a mental health professional familiar with the issues facing college athletes can be instrumental in helping many of these student-athletes achieve success in the university setting.
Kathleen Y. Wolin and Gary G. Bennett
The interrelations between various physical activity domains have received little empirical attention in the United States. Of particular interest, given the potential applicability to traditionally underserved communities, is the nature of the association between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA).
5448 adult men and women who participated in NHANES 1999–2000 were included in analyses. Linear regression was used to examine the bivariate and multivariable associations of OPA and education with LTPA. Generalized logit models were used to examine the association of education with OPA.
We found no association between education and LTPA. OPA was significantly positively associated with LTPA (P < .001). The association between OPA and LTPA was not strongest among those with low education and held only for men in gender-stratified analysis. Education was inversely associated with OPA (P < .001) in multivariable analysis.
Our findings lend preliminary support to the hypothesis that OPA is an important determinant of LTPA, particularly in men. This provides additional support to calls for assessment of OPA, particularly among individuals of low social class.
Rebecca E. Hasson, Kirsten E. Granados, David Xavier Marquez, Gary Bennett, Patty Freedson, and Barry Braun
Racial differences in psychological determinants of exercise exist between non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and non-Hispanic whites (whites). To date, no study has examined racial differences in the psychological responses during and after exercise. The objective of this study was to compare psychological outcomes of single exercise bouts in blacks and whites.
On 3 separate occasions, sedentary black (n = 16) and white (n = 14) participants walked on a treadmill at 75%max HR for 75 minutes. Questionnaires assessing mood, state anxiety, and exercise task self-efficacy were administered before and after each exercise bout. In-task mood and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every 5 minutes during exercise.
Exercise self-efficacy and psychological distress significantly improved in both blacks and whites. However during exercise blacks reported more positive in-task mood and lower RPE compared with whites.
These data suggest that racial differences exist in psychological responses during exercise. Further research should confirm these findings in a larger, free-living population.
Kathleen Y. Wolin, Daniel P. Heil, Sandy Askew, Charles E. Matthews, and Gary G. Bennett
The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S) has been evaluated against accelerometer-determined physical activity measures in small homogenous samples of adults in the United States. There is limited information about the validity of the IPAQ-S in diverse US samples.
142 Blacks residing in low-income housing completed the IPAQ-S and wore an accelerometer for up to 6 days. Both 1- and 10-minute accelerometer bouts were used to define time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity.
We found fair agreement between the IPAQ-S and accelerometer-determined physical activity (r = .26 for 10-minute bout, r = .36 for 1-minute bout). Correlations were higher among men than women. When we classified participants as meeting physical activity recommendations, agreement was low (kappa = .04, 10-minute; kappa = .21, 1-minute); only 25% of individuals were classified the same by both instruments (10-minute bout).
In one of the few studies to assess the validity of a self-reported physical activity measure among Blacks, we found moderate correlations with accelerometer data, though correlations were weaker for women. Correlations were smaller when IPAQ-S data were compared using a 10- versus a 1-minute bout definition. There was limited evidence for agreement between the instruments when classifying participants as meeting physical activity recommendations.