A developmental approach to the acquisition of mental management skills for use by teachers and coaches who wish to meet the needs of beginning and elite performers is outlined. The natural linkage of psychological skills training with the learning and instructional process is discussed, and a case is presented for the teaching of mental skills by teachers and coaches in the practice setting. A learning and an action cycle model are used both to illustrate how mental skills are embedded in the learning process and to identify the appropriate learning phase where each of the fundamental mental skills would be most effectively introduced. A practice session oriented protocol that enables learners to develop the ability to mentally manage their own physical performance is presented. This “mental management” view recognizes that a response is more easily taught, learned, understood, and remembered if it is developed along with the other responses with which it naturally occurs.
Gary D. Sinclair and Dana A. Sinclair
Moira D. Luke and Gary D. Sinclair
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the potential determinants of male and female adolescents’ attitudes toward school physical education. Students (N=488), randomly selected from four large metropolitan schools, were asked to comment on their school physical education experience from kindergarten through Grade 10. A systematic content analysis was used to categorize these responses. Three main questions were addressed: What factors in the K-10 physical education experience of male/female students contribute to the development of positive/negative attitudes toward physical education? Are these factors different for males and females? Are they different for students electing to take school physical education? Five main determinants of attitude were identified in ranked order: curriculum content, teacher behavior, class atmosphere, student self-perceptions, and facilities. Overall, male and female students identified the same determinants in the same order of priority.
Ian M. Franks, Robert B. Johnson, and Gary D. Sinclair
A computerized coaching analysis system (CCAS) is described, consisting of a series of systematic observation instruments that allow the collection of behavioral data on both the coach and the athlete. This system is composed of three interactive computer programs that structure the acquisition, immediate analysis, and storage of pertinent observable behaviors displayed by coaches and athletes during a typical coaching practice. Three separate observation instruments are outlined in detail and the discussion of their use centers on the general application of this technology in the sporting milieu.