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George Graham

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George Graham

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Nell Faucette and George Graham

This article discusses some of the results described in a recent observational case study that examined the impact of an in-service program on the curricula and teaching behaviors of two elementary physical education teachers. In the study, numerous factors were identified as enhancers and inhibitors to the implementation process, including the relationships between participating principals and the two teachers. This article describes these relationships and the perceptions of the two teachers as they progressed through the in-service program. It also discusses the teachers’ levels of use of the innovations. The results of the study revealed that both teachers were dramatically influenced by their perceptions of principals’ actions and attitudes but only one of them successfully adopted the innovations. Data for the study were obtained from four sources: observations, interviews, documents, and questionnaires. These data were collected during a 7-month period that included all preliminary and in-service planning sessions as well as five in-service sessions, and during 140 hours of observations at two school sites.

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Christine Hopple and George Graham

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Jon R. Poole and George Graham

This study was designed to be an initial step toward a better understanding of how graduate teaching assistants teach their courses and the influences that shape their teaching decisions. The purposes included gaining insights into internal models that guided their teaching and describing the influence of an induction program on these internal models. A multi-case-study approach was employed to construct individual portraits. These portraits revealed that internal models were developed primarily from past experience as athletes, students, and teachers. Teaching could best be portrayed as a “pedagogy of contentment.” That is, teaching assistants were generally satisfied with their own teaching and did not perceive a need for additional improvement. Reported satisfaction was based on their belief that they already knew the different strategies, methods, and routines for teaching their particular subject.

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Wallace B. Salter and George Graham

The effects of three disparate styles of teaching were examined to determine their influence on motor skill acquisition, cognitive learning related to the performance of a motor skill, and students’ ratings of self-efficacy. The subjects were third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children (N = 244) in two rural elementary schools. The three instructional methodologies employed were Command, Guided Discovery, and No Instruction. The criterion lesson was a 20-minute experimental teaching unit using a novel golf task. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups taught by the three instructional approaches on skill improvement or self-efficacy. Cognitive understanding improved significantly for the groups taught by the command and guided discovery approaches, however, as compared to the no-instruction groups. Students in the no-instruction groups had a significantly higher number of skill attempts (M = 29.56) as compared to the command (M = 18.56) and guided discovery (M = 20.63) groups. This finding served as a plausible explanation for the lack of significant difference in skill improvement between the three groups on the criterion skill.