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Jean M. Williams, Laura J. Kenow, Gerald J. Jerome, Tracie Rogers, Tessa A. Sartain and Greg Darland

Little research exists to identify optimal coaching behaviors and factors that influence the effectiveness of particular behaviors. The present study tested 484 athletes in order to determine sub-scales on the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). The CBQ measures athletes’ perceptions of coaching behaviors and evaluates their effectiveness in helping athletes play better and maintain optimal mental states and focus. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the two-factor model (negative activation, supportiveness/emotional composure) derived from an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Correlational analyses indicated that athletes with higher anxiety and lower self-confidence and compatibility with the coach were more likely to negatively evaluate coaching behaviors. The results support and expand on Smoll and Smith’s (1989) model of leadership behaviors in sport.

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Stephanie Studenski and Luigi Ferrucci

Consideration of knee pain can be crucial for identifying fall-related gait patterns. While walking, gait parameters at usual speed were examined in persons with different falls and knee pain status. A total of 439 adults aged 60–92 years participated in this study. Persons with a history of falls had a wider stride width (p = .036) and longer double support time (p = .034) than nonfallers. In the absence of knee pain, fallers had longer double support time than nonfallers (p = .012), but no differences in double support time by history of falls were observed in participants with knee pain. With slower gait speed, fallers with knee pain have narrower stride width and larger hip range of motion (p = .027 and p = .001, respectively). Results suggest the importance of considering knee pain in fall studies for better understanding the fall-related differential gait mechanisms and for designing fall prevention intervention strategies.

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Chuhe Chen, Gerald J. Jerome, Daniel LaFerriere, Deborah Rohm Young and William M. Vollmer

Background:

Accelerometers measure intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activity. However, the scarcity of reports on data reduction makes comparing accelerometer results across studies difficult.

Methods:

Participants were asked to wear a triaxial accelerometer (RT3) for ≥10 hours for at least 4 days, including one weekend day. We summarize our data-cleaning procedures and assess the impact of defining a usable day of measurements as at least 6, 8, or 10 hours of wear time, and of standardizing data to a 12-hour day.

Results:

Eighty-two percent of participants met wear time requirements; 93% met requirements when we defined a day as 8-or-more hours of wear time. Normalization of data to a 12-hour day had little impact on estimates of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 16.9 vs. 17.1 minutes); restricting MVPA to activities occurring in bouts of 10 minutes or longer had greater impact (16.9 vs. 6.3 minutes per day).

Conclusion:

Our account of accelerometry quality-control and data-cleaning procedures documents the small impact of variations in daily wear time requirements on MVPA estimates, and the larger impact of evaluating total MVPA vs. MVPA occurring in extended bouts. This paper should allow other researchers to duplicate or revise our methods as needed.

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Luigi Ferrucci

Obstacle crossing, such as stepping over a curb, exerts additional demands on balance control, and therefore the study of usual-pace gait patterns associated with obstacle-crossing performance may provide additional insight into understanding falls and deterioration of gait in older adults. Participants included 432 adults aged 60–96 years (218 women). Participants who failed the obstacle-crossing task (n = 181) walked slower with smaller knee range of motion than participants who successfully completed the obstacle-crossing task (all ps < .001). Participants who failed the obstacle crossing reported a greater likelihood of falling in the previous year, more balance problems, lower walking ability, and needed longer time to complete 5 chair stands than those who passed the task (all ps < .05). Obstacle-crossing task may identify gait patterns in older adults who appear functionally intact, but who are nonetheless at risk of fall and balance problems.