The aims of this study were (a) to determine which of the most used anthropometric equations was the most accurate to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF), (b) to develop a new specific anthropometric equation, and (c) to validate this football-specific equation. A total of 126 (13.3 ± 0.6 years) football players (86 males and 40 females) participated in the present study. Participants were divided into two groups: 98 players were included in the assessment of existing equations and in the development of the new prediction equation, and 28 players were used to validate it. %BF was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and also estimated with six different %BF anthropometric equations: Johnston, Slaughter, Carter, Faulkner, Deurenberg, and Santi-Maria. Paired t tests were used to analyze differences between methods. A football-specific equation was developed by a stepwise linear regression. The existing anthropometric equations showed significant bias for %BF when compared with DXA (p < .001; constant error ranged from −4.57% to 9.24%; standard error of estimate ranged from 2.46 to 4.20). On the other hand, the developed football-specific equation was %BF = 11.115 + 0.775 (triceps skinfold) + 0.193 (iliac crest skinfold) − 1.606 (sex). The developed equation demonstrated neither %BF differences (p = .121; constant error = 0.57%; standard error of estimate = 0.36) when compared with DXA, presenting a high cross-validation prediction power (R 2 = .85). Published anthropometric equations were not accurate to estimate %BF in adolescent football players. Due to the fact that the developed football-specific equation showed neither differences nor heteroscedasticity when compared with DXA, this equation is recommended to assess %BF in adolescent football players.
Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro González-Agüero, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez and José A. Casajús
Alba Gómez-Cabello, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Isabel Navarro-Vera, Diana Martinez-Redondo, Carmen Díez-Sánchez and José Antonio Casajús
The aim of this study was to provide information about the relationship of bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) with some physical-fitness-related variables in a sample of women with fibromyalgia (FM) and age-matched women without FM. Twenty-eight women clinically diagnosed with FM (age 51.1 ± 8.4 yr, M ± SD) and 22 age-matched controls participated in the study. Whole-body BMC and BMD, lean mass, handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and cardiovascular fitness were measured in all participants. The association between physical-fitness variables and bone-related variables was tested by linear regression controlling for body weight as a possible confounder. There were no differences in BMC or BMD between groups. Women with FM had lower values of handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and VO2peak than the control group. Handgrip strength and aerobic capacity were associated with BMC and BMD and quadriceps strength was associated with BMD in women with FM; however, only VO2peak was associated with BMC in the group of women without FM. Bone mass of women with FM may be more susceptible to changes in physical fitness than that of the women without fibromyalgia.
Blanca Roman-Viñas, Jorge Marin, Mairena Sánchez-López, Susana Aznar, Rosaura Leis, Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Helmut Schroder, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada, German Vicente, Marcela González-Gross and Lluís Serra-Majem
The first Active Healthy Kids Spanish Report Card aims to gather the most robust information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior of children and adolescents.
A Research Working Group of experts on PA and sport sciences was convened. A comprehensive data search, based on a review of the literature, dissertations, gray literature, and experts’ nonpublished data, was conducted to identify the best sources to grade each indicator following the procedures and methodology outlined by the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card model.
Overall PA (based on objective and self-reported methods) was graded as D-, Organized Sports Participation as B, Active Play as C+, Active Transportation as C, Sedentary Behavior as D, School as C, and Family and Peers as Incomplete, Community and the Built Environment as Incomplete, and Government as Incomplete.
Spanish children and adolescents showed low levels of adherence to PA and sedentary behavior guidelines, especially females and adolescents. There is a need to achieve consensus and harmonize methods to evaluate PA and sedentary behavior to monitor changes over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to promote PA.
Palma ChiMón, Francisco B. Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, David Martínez-Gómez, Germán Vicente-Rodriguez, Kurt Widhalm, Dénes Molnar, Frédéric Gottrand, Marcela González-Gross, Dianne S. Ward, Luis A. Moreno, Manuel J. Castillo and Michael Sjöström
Chillón and Ruiz are with the Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Granada, Spain. Chillón and Ward are with the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Ortega, Ruiz and Sjöström are with the Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Ortega and Castillo are with the Department of Medical Physiology, University of Granada, Spain. De Bourdeaudhuij is with the Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Martínez-Gómez is with the Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain. Vicente-Rodríguez and Moreno are with Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain. Widhalm is with the Department of Paediatrics, Division of Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Molnar is with the Deprtment of Paediatrics, Clinical Center, University of Pécs, Hungary. Gottrand is with Inserm U995, University Lille2 and CIC-9301-CH&U-Inserm, University Hospital of Lille, France. González-Gross is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.