Background: To resolve the impairments associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), such as decreased balance, patients have been recommended to undergo various therapeutic strategies, including the use of different physical exercise methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of using rebound therapy (exercise on a trampoline) on SCI individuals’ static stability. Methods: Sixteen people with SCI (American Spinal Cord Association classification: A = 6, B = 6, C = 2, and D = 2) were randomly assigned to an experimental (rebound exercise) group or a control group. The rebound therapy exercise program, lasting 12 weeks, was performed by means of a modified trampoline. During the said period, the experimental group received rebound therapy exercise for 10 to 30 minutes 3 sessions a week. Standing stability parameters (ie, excursion, velocity, and path length of the center of pressure in mediolateral and anteroposterior plane) were assessed before and after the exercise intervention by Kistler force plate (50 × 60 cm). Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 6 dependent variables except excursion of the center of pressure in mediolateral and the path length of center of pressure in anteroposterior plane (P < .01). This means that the control group had no progress, whereas the experimental group made a significant improvement in terms of static stability. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed that rebound therapy could reinforce the static stability of individuals with SCI during motionless standing. It suggests that rebound exercise is a useful sports rehabilitation method for patients with SCI and other wheelchair-bound individuals.
Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi and Mohammadtaghi Karimi
Mahsa Jafari, Vahid Zolaktaf and Gholamali Ghasemi
Purpose: Firefighters require a high level of functional fitness to operate safely, effectively, and efficiently. The authors studied the distribution of functional movement screen (FMS) scores in firefighters and examined whether an 8-week corrective exercise program based on National Academy of Sport Medicine guidelines could improve them. Methods: All 524 active firefighters of a city completed the baseline FMS testing. Those who obtained a score of 14 or less, a sign of movement dysfunction, and volunteered to continue their participation were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n = 51) or a control (n = 45) group. Both groups participated in an 8-week training program. The control group used their own usual training routine, but the experimental group used the specific protocol designed for the study. Results: The FMS scores of 43% of the population were less than 14. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between FMS scores of the groups (F 1,94 =165, P < .001). The experimental group showed a 69% improvement from pretest (10.6) to posttest (17.8), whereas the control group showed only a 3% improvement from pretest (11.8) to posttest (12.1). Conclusions: Preceding studies have shown that FMS scores less than 14 increase the injury risk. The findings showed that using our proposed training protocol, low FMS scores could be improved to 14 and higher. Considering the high injury rate of firefighters, the authors suggest administering FMS periodically and to use a training protocol such as ours, to increase functional fitness and reduce injury risk.
Afshin Moghadasi, Gholamali Ghasemi, Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh and Masoud Etemadifar
Context: Muscle weakness and sensory deficits cause impaired balance and walking abilities that are prerequisites for independent activity of daily living in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent physical exercises tailored to improve the activity of daily living people with MS have focused on the functional training. Objective: To investigate the effect of total body resistance exercise suspension training on mobility, proprioception, and muscle strength of the knee in people with MS. Design: Single-blind pretest and posttest control group design. Setting: Referral Center of Multiple Sclerosis Society. Participants: Thirty-four women with relapsing–remitting MS were participated in this study. The mean (SD) of their age was 36.44 (4.88) years, and the Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.35 (0.94). The participants were divided into 2 groups: control group (n = 15) and training group (n = 19). Intervention: The training group performed the total body resistance exercise program for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week. The control group received their usual care and daily activities. Outcomes were measured presessions and postsessions. Main Outcome Measures: Mobility was assessed with Timed Up and Go test, 10-m walk maximum test, 2 minute walk test, and 5-time sit-to-stand test. Knee proprioception absolute error and isometric strength of knee flexor and extensor muscles were measured by using a biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Results: In the training group, mobility (P = .001), maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee flexor and extensor muscles in both legs (P > .05), and the knee proprioception absolute error in nondominant leg at 60° knee flexion (P = .02) improved significantly compared with the control group. Conclusion: Total body resistance exercise is a functional and safe intervention that can improve the mobility and muscles strength of the knee in a short period in people with MS.