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Michael R. Bracko and Gilbert W. Fellingham

Fifty-four female and 77 male hockey players ranging in age from 10–15 years volunteered for this study. Demographic data included: age (AGE) and years of playing experience (YPE). Off-ice tests included: height (HGT), body mass (BM), lean body mass (LBM), predicted body fat % (FAT%), 40-yard dash (40YD), vertical jump (VJ), push-ups/min (PUPS), sit-ups/min (SUPS), and sit-and-reach flexibility (S&R). On-ice performance skating tests included: acceleration (ACC), agility (AGL), and speed (SPD). On-ice anaerobic power (AnPow) was calculated using the formula of Watson and Sargeant (IS). Generally speaking, the females and males in this study had similar results in office fitness. The males consistently out-performed the females in the on-ice tests. It would be difficult for females to compete with or against same-aged males based on the fact that males are superior skaters.

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J. William Myrer, J. Brent Feland, and Gilbert W. Fellingham

Chronic knee pain is a prevalent health problem of old and middle age. The authors’ objective was to determine whether a topical analgesic would reduce knee pain and improve the function of a group of 40- to 65-year-old people with chronic knee pain. The experimental design was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The dependent variables were knee pain, active range of motion, and isometric strength. Forty-six men and women volunteered, of whom 3 dropped out, leaving 23 in the treatment group and 20 in the placebo group. Knee pain was assessed with a visual analogue scale and the knee-pain scale for frequency and severity. Testing took place before treatment and after 21 and 35 days of treatment. The results indicated that although both groups experienced improved pain scores, there were no differences between groups over the treatment period for any of the dependent variables.

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Joyce M. Harrison, Gilbert W. Fellingham, Marilyn M. Buck, and Tracy L. Pellett

This study compared volleyball achievement and task-specific self-efficacy for high-, medium-, and low-skilled learners using two teaching styles. Students were pre-, mid-, and posttested on skills and self-efficacy and were ability grouped from skill pretest scores. Learning trials were tallied for 58 students in two university classes, and growth curves for each student were created by plotting the percentages of successful trials against the 19 instructional days. ANOVA, used to determine relationships between the teaching styles and the rate of change in volleyball performance, revealed two significant aptitude treatment interactions (ATIs). For skill practice, low-skilled learners did better with command style on the set, and the practice style was best for low-skilled learners on the spike. Self-efficacy increased for all students, with no significant difference in style.

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Rishann Nielson, Pat R. Vehrs, Gilbert W. Fellingham, Ronald Hager, and Keven A. Prusak


The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy and reliability of step counts and energy expenditure as estimated by a pedometer during treadmill walking and to clarify the relationship between step counts and current physical activity recommendations.


One hundred males (n = 50) and females (n = 50) walked at stride frequencies (SF) of 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 steps/min, during which time step counts and energy expenditure were estimated with a Walk4Life Elite pedometer.


The pedometer accurately measured step counts at SFs of 100, 110, and 120 steps/min, but not 80 and 90 steps/min. Compared with energy expenditure as measured by a metabolic cart, the pedometer significantly underestimated energy expenditure at 80 steps/min and significantly overestimated measured energy expenditure at 90, 100, 110, and 120 steps/ min.


The pedometers’ inability to accurately estimate energy expenditure cannot be attributed to stride length entered into the pedometer or its ability to measure step counts. Males met 3 criteria and females met 2 criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity at SF of 110 to 120 steps/min. These results provide the basis for defining moderate-intensity physical activity based on energy expenditure and step counts and may lead to an appropriate steps/day recommendation.

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Brian R. Hunt, James D. George, Pat R. Vehrs, A. Garth Fisher, and Gilbert W. Fellingham

The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of the 1-mile jog test to predict VO2max in fit teenagers. Forty-one males and 42 females performed the steady-state, submaximal jogging test on an indoor track, along with a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill. Open circuit calorimetry was used during the GXT to measure maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). We generated the following age-specific prediction equation applicable to boys and girls 13–17 years old (n = 83, Radj = .88, SEE = 3.26 ml · kg−1 · min−1): VO2max = 92.91 + 6.50 × gender (0 = female, 1 = male) − 0.141 × body mass (kg) − 1.562 × jog time (min) − 0.125 × heart rate (bpm). Cross-validation results were acceptable (SEEpress = 3.44 ml · kg−1 · min−1). As a field test, the submaximal 1-mile jogging test may alleviate problems associated with pacing, motivation, discouragement, injury, and fatigue that are sometimes associated with maximal effort timed or distance run tests.

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Joyce M. Harrison, Lisa A. Preece, Connie L. Blakemore, Robert P. Richards, Carol Wilkinson, and Gilbert W. Fellingham

This study examined volleyball achievement and task-specific self-efficacy for 182 students in 6 beginning college volleyball classes taught using either the Mastery Learning or Skill Teaching models. Three instructors each taught one Mastery Learning and one Skill Teaching class. Assessments included the AAHPERD pass, set. and serve tests, the Stanley spike test, successful and unsuccessful game trials. Bandura-type self-efficacy scales, and a knowledge test. A random coefficients growth curve model analyzed the intercepts and slopes of the learning curves and revealed significant pre- to posttest improvement on skills tests, self-efficacy, and the percentage of correct passes and serves in game play for all students. No significant difference existed between the two models on average number of trials per day; rate of improvement for the pass, serve, or spike skills tests; self-efficacy; percentage of correct passes, sets, or serves in game play; contacts per serve in game play; or knowledge scores. The Mastery students’ rate of learning was significantly better on the set skills test (1.3 points higher) and the percentage of successful spikes in game play, in which they started significantly lower. The low-skilled students improved at a faster rate on the serve and on self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. Males had higher self-efficacy than females, while females increased more rapidly in self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. All results were analyzed at the .05 level of significance. Students learned to play volleyball and improved significantly in skill performances with either model.