Jung-Min Lee, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Youngwon Kim, Glenn A. Gaesser and Gregory Welk
The assessment of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in youth is complicated by inherent variability in growth and maturation during childhood and adolescence. This study provides descriptive summaries of the EE of a diverse range of activities in children ages 7 to 13.
A sample of 105 7- to 13-year-old children (boys: 57%, girls: 43%, and Age: 9.9 ± 1.9) performed a series of 12 activities from a pool of 24 activities while being monitored with an indirect calorimetry system.
Across physical activities, averages of VO2 ml·kg·min-1, VO2 L·min-1, EE, and METs ranged from 3.3 to 53.7 ml·kg·min-1, from 0.15 to 3.2 L·min-1, from 0.7 to 15.9 kcal·min-1, 1.5 MET to 7.8 MET, respectively.
The energy costs of the activities varied by age, sex, and BMI status reinforcing the need to consider adjustments when examining the relative intensity of PA in youth.
Zachary S. Zeigler, Pamela D. Swan, Dharini M. Bhammar and Glenn A. Gaesser
The acute effect of low-intensity walking on blood pressure (BP) is unclear.
To determine if the acute use of a walking workstation reduces ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in prehypertensive men and women.
Ten prehypertensive adults participated in a randomized, cross-over study that included a control workday and a walking workstation workday. ABP was measured for 7 hour during the workday and for 6 hour after work.
Both systolic BP (SBP) (134 ± 14 vs. 137 ± 16 mmHg; P = .027) and diastolic BP (DBP) (79 ± 10 vs. 82 ± 12 mmHg; P = .001) were lower on the walking workstation day. Postwork hours (4:00 PM–10:00 PM), SBP (129 ± 13 vs. 133 ± 14 mmHg; P = .008), and DBP (74 ± 11 vs. 78 ± 13 mmHg; P = .001) were also lower on the walking workstation day. DBP load was significantly lower during the walking workstation day, with only 14% of the readings above 90 mmHg compared with 22% of the control day readings (P = .037).
Accumulation of very-light-intensity physical activity (~2 METs) over the course of a single work day using a walking workstation may reduce BP burden in prehypertensive individuals.
David W. Brock, Olivia Thomas, Charles D. Cowan, David B. Allison, Glenn A. Gaesser and Gary R. Hunter
Numerous public health organizations have adopted national physical activity recommendations. Despite these recommendations, over half of the US population does not meet the minimum recommendation for physical activity, with large variations across individual US states.
Using the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) prevalence data for physical activity and obesity by state, we performed a weighted least squares regression using prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) as the dependent variable and insufficiently physically active (included completely sedentary), age, race, gender, and median household income as the independent variables.
The unadjusted weighted least squares regression revealed a strong correlation between a state’s prevalence of obesity and the prevalence of insufficiently physically active (R = .76, R
2 = .58, P < .0001). After adjusting for age, gender, race, and median household income, the prevalence of insufficiently physically active is still a significant predictor of the state prevalence of obesity (partial R = .44, R
2 = .19 P = .004).
Macroenvironmental and sociopolitical disparities between individual US states that transcend simple state-level demographic factors need to be examined more rigorously to identify unique barriers and promoters of physical activity.