A 3-D model was used in this study to determine the influence of midsole hardness, as well as the influence of running in shoes in comparison to barefoot, on the contact forces in the joints of the foot and ankle during running. The results showed that there were no statistical differences in the magnitude and rate of joint loading for changing midsole hardness, nor were there any general trends observed in the measured variables. However, both the magnitude and rate of loading in the subtalar and ankle joints during the impact phase were found to be greater in the barefoot condition than the shod condition. The results suggest that if running injuries are assumed to be related to the impact of heel-strike, running in shoes may aid in preventing injuries, whereas it is still questionable whether changes in the midsole hardness have a general influence on the incidence of impact-related injuries.
Gerald K. Cole, Benno M. Nigg, Gordon H. Fick and Michael M. Morlock
Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael A. Pickering, Nicole Glenn, Sandra L. Doze, Melissa L. Reinbold-Matthews, Laura J. McLeod, David C. W. Lau, Gordon H. Fick, Steven T. Johnson and Laura Flaman
Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This pilot investigation explores the effects of a standard diabetes education program compared with a supplemental PA intervention on diabetes-related health outcomes.
Using a prospective 2-armed design, 96 adults with T2DM were randomly assigned to either standard care (diabetes education program; n = 49) or standard care supplemented with an 8-week, individualized-counseling and community-based PA component (n = 47). Measurements were taken at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary outcomes were changes in PA (self-report) and HbA1c. Between group changes were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and changes over time using repeated-measures ANOVA.
In comparison with standard care, the supplemental group demonstrated an increase in PA (Ps < 0.01) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Ps < 0.05) from baseline to all follow-up time-points. HbA1c levels declined (P < .05) from baseline to all time points in the standard care group. Reduction in cholesterol-ratio (P < .01), increase in HDL (P < .05), and reductions in blood pressure, resting heart rate and BMI (approaching statistical significance Ps < 0.10) were also reported for both groups.
PA counseling in addition to standard care is effective for promoting PA behavior change and positive health-related outcomes among individuals with T2DM.