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Georges Baquet, Gregory Dupont, François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier, and Serge Berthoin

This study aimed to compare the effect of active recovery (AR) versus passive recovery (PR) on time to exhaustion and time spent at high percentages of peak oxygen uptake (peakV˙O2) during short, high-intensity intermittent exercises in children. Twelve children (9.5 [0.7] y) underwent a graded test and 2 short, high-intensity intermittent exercises (15 s at 120% of maximal aerobic speed) interspersed with either 15 seconds of AR (50% of maximal aerobic speed) or 15-second PR until exhaustion. A very large effect (effect size = 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 3.52) was observed for time to exhaustion in favor of longer time to exhaustion with PR compared with AR. Trivial or small effect sizes were found for peakV˙O2, peakHR, and peak ventilation between PR and AR, while a moderate effect in favor of higher average V˙O2 values (effect size = −0.87; 95% confidence interval, −1.76 to −0.01) was found using AR. The difference between PR and AR for the time spent above 80% (t80%) and 90% (t90%) of peakV˙O2 was trivial. Despite the shorter running duration in AR, similar t80% and t90% were spent with AR and PR. Time spent at a high percentage of peakV˙O2 may be attained by running 3-fold shorter using AR compared with using PR.

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Benoit Delaval, Abd-Elbasset Abaïdia, Barthélémy Delecroix, Franck Le Gall, Alan McCall, Said Ahmaidi, and Gregory Dupont

Purpose: To analyze the relationships between the recovery kinetics experienced by professional football players and noncontact injury. Methods: A cohort of 46 professional football players (age 24.2 [4.7] y) from the same team (French Ligue 1) was monitored each day between matches when the team played twice a week. The recovery monitoring procedure was implemented after 38 matches and included some questionnaires: duration of sleep, Hooper scale (quality of sleep, level of stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness), perceived recovery status scale, creatine kinase concentrations, a countermovement jump, and an isometric force test. Noncontact injuries were collected during these periods. Results: Noncontact injuries were associated with perceived fatigue and muscle soreness 2 days (relative risk [RR] = 1.89 and 1.48, respectively) and 3 days following the matches (RR = 2.08 and 2.08, respectively). An increase of sleep quantity during the 2 nights following a match was significantly associated with a lower RR (RR = 0.65), as well as a lower decrement score on the isometric force test on each of the 3 days after the matches (RR = 0.97, RR = 0.99, and RR = 0.97, respectively). No other association was reported for the variables sleep quality, stress, perceived recovery, creatine kinase concentrations, countermovement jump, and noncontact injuries. Conclusion: During a congested schedule, implementing a recovery monitoring protocol including questionnaires about fatigue, muscle soreness, quantity of sleep, and a physical test of isometric force could help practitioners prevent injuries.

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Karim Saidi, Hassane Zouhal, Daniel Boullosa, Gregory Dupont, Anthony C. Hackney, Benoit Bideau, Urs Granacher, and Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman

Objectives: To analyze biochemical markers, wellness status, and physical fitness in elite soccer players in relation to changes in training and match exposure during a congested period of match play. Methods: Fourteen elite soccer players were evaluated 3 times (T1, T2, and T3) over 12 weeks (T1–T2: 6-wk regular period of match play and T2–T3: 6-wk congested period of match play). Players performed vertical jump tests, repeated shuttle sprint ability test, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test at T1, T2, and T3. Plasma C-reactive protein, creatinine, and creatine kinase were analyzed at T1, T2, and T3. Wellness status was measured daily using the Hopper questionnaire (delayed onset of muscle soreness, stress, fatigue, and sleep quality). Training session rating of perceived exertion was also recorded on a daily basis. Results: A significant increase was found in stress, fatigue, delayed onset of muscle soreness scores, and Hopper index during the congested period (between T2 and T3) compared with the regular period (between T1 and T2) (.001 < P < .008, 0.8 < ES < 2.3). Between T2 and T3, significant relationships were found between the percentage variations (Δ%) of C-reactive protein, and Δ% of creatine kinase with the Hopper Index, and the Δ% of fatigue score. In addition, the Δ% of fatigue score and Δ% of delayed onset of muscle soreness score correlated with Δ% Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and Δ% best of repeated shuttle sprint ability test (.49 < r < P < .01). Conclusions: An intensive period of congested match play significantly compromised elite soccer players’ physical fitness and wellness status. Elite soccer players’ wellness status reflects declines in physical fitness during this period while biochemical changes do not.

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Abd-Elbasset Abaïdia, Julien Lamblin, Barthélémy Delecroix, Cédric Leduc, Alan McCall, Mathieu Nédélec, Brian Dawson, Georges Baquet, and Grégory Dupont


To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage.


Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at –110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise.


Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = –0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = –0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = –0.68; 90% CI = –1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = –0.62; 90% CI = –1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes.


CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24–48 h postexercise.