Using a multidimensional framework, the authors developed the Community Sport Capacity Scale to measure the key elements of capacity in community sport organizations or clubs and investigate their relative impact on three key indicators of club performance. Presidents or their representatives from 336 community sport organizations in 20 sports across the province of Ontario, Canada, completed the web-based survey measuring the extent of various elements of human resources, infrastructure, finance, planning, and external relationships capacity. The survey also measured club operations, programs, and community presence, identified as key performance outcomes. Controlling for club size, elements representing all five capacity dimensions were significantly associated with the outcomes. The findings highlight the rich information that may be generated from a multidimensional and context-specific perspective on organizational capacity, and indicate implications for building capacity in community sport organizations.
Alison Doherty and Graham Cuskelly
Graham Cuskelly and Christopher J. Auld
This investigation examined the perceived importance of a range of occupational responsibilities of sport and recreation managers and whether there were differences according to the organizational setting. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to 196 sport and recreation managers in Queensland, Australia; there was an effective response rate of 124 (69%). The results indicated that the job responsibilities perceived as most important were public relations, financial management, program planning and management, and interpersonal communication. Significant differences were found between managers in different work settings. It was also evident that there were commonalities in the perceived importance of job competencies between the United States and Australia. The study concluded that there have been generally consistent findings about the perceived importance of job competencies, and that different sectors of the sport industry require different emphases in curricula development and professional development programs.
Graham Cuskelly, Norman McIntyre, and Alistair Boag
The commitment of volunteers is critical to the effective organization and delivery of community-based sport. This paper examined the development of organizational commitment amongst volunteers in relation to several organizational factors and personal characteristics. Using data from a 3-wave longitudinal study of volunteer administrators (n = 328) drawn from 52 randomly selected community-based sport organizations, organizational commitment was examined in relation to a range of variables including personal characteristics (sociodemographics), behavioral commitment, volunteering benefits, structural attributes (organizational size, budget), and process characteristics operationalized as perceptions about committee functioning. Using hierarchical regression analysis, the study found evidence of a directional relationship between perceived committee functioning and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment was also predicted by age group, occupation, years of organizational membership, and time spent on administration. The study demonstrated a temporal relationship between committee functioning and organizational commitment and concluded with a discussion of practical implications and recommendations for further research.
Pamela Wicker, Kevin Filo, and Graham Cuskelly
When community sport clubs are impacted by natural disasters, organizational resilience is critical to recovery. Within this study, organizational resilience is conceptualized as a function of robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity, and applied to community sport clubs. Using data from a survey of sport clubs (n = 200) in Queensland, Australia, the organizational resilience of affected clubs and their recovery from natural disasters (flooding, cyclone) was investigated. The findings show that clubs used human and financial resources predominantly in their recovery efforts. Organizational resilience, number of members, and the use of government grants had a significant positive effect on the extent of the club’s perceived overall recovery. Clubs providing equestrian, golf, and motor sports recovered to a significantly lower extent. Proactively pursuing government grants, suitable insurance coverage, and interorganizational relationships were identified as factors that assisted clubs in becoming more resilient. The measurement of resilience should be refined and expanded in future research.
Popi Sotiriadou, Jessie Brouwers, Veerle De Bosscher, and Graham Cuskelly
Previous studies acknowledge the importance of sporting organizations’ developing partnerships with clubs for athlete development purposes. However, there are no studies that address the way partnerships influence athlete progression and pathways. This study explores interorganizational relationships (IORs) between a tennis federation and tennis clubs in their efforts to improve player development processes. Document analysis and semistructured interviews with representatives from clubs and the Flemish federation were used. The findings show that the federation and the clubs engaged in IORs to achieve reciprocity and efficiency. The federation anticipated gaining legitimacy and asymmetry, and clubs expected to develop stability. Formal and informal control mechanisms facilitated IOR management. The conceptual model discussed in this study shows the types of IOR motives, management, and control mechanisms that drive and influence the attraction, retention/ transition, and nurturing processes of athlete development.
Karsten Elmose-Østerlund, Graham Cuskelly, Jens Høyer-Kruse, and Christian Røj Voldby
Despite a rich literature on organizational capacity (OC) in voluntary sports clubs (VSCs), few studies have examined OC building and its long-term sustainability. Against this background, the authors identified changes in OC among VSCs that participated in a club development program and examined the sustainability of these changes. The authors collected survey data 9 months after participation comparing the participating VSCs (n = 62) with similar nonparticipating VSCs (n = 64). A selection of the participating VSCs was then contacted 3–4 years later for a follow-up survey (n = 48) and focus group interviews (n = 5). The results show that (a) significant differences in human resource capacity, planning and development capacity, and infrastructure and process capacity were visible between the participating and nonparticipating VSCs, and that (b) certain changes in OC remain in the clubs 3–4 years after participation. A sustainable change was that core volunteers related differently to the work in their respective VSCs.