Well-being research conducted in competitive athletics has been marred by the lack of a context-specific measurement instrument. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (MHC-SF) to create a sport-specific well-being instrument, the Sport Mental Health Continuum—Short Form (Sport MHC-SF), and test its initial psychometric properties. Participants were 287 collegiate athletes from a variety of sports. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) determined a three-factor structure of sport well-being, consisting of subjective, psychological, and social factors, as the model of best fit. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales exceeded .88. Moderate positive correlations were found between Sport MHC-SF subscales and quality of life indices, notably physical and emotional quality of life, demonstrating convergent validity. The Sport MHC-SF will facilitate empirical research by providing a more accurate and comprehensive measurement of well-being for an athletic population.
Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow
Graig M. Chow, Kristen E. Murray and Deborah L. Feltz
The purpose of this study was to examine personal and socioenvironmental factors of players' likelihood to aggress. Participants were youth soccer players (N = 258) and their coaches (N = 23) from high school and club teams. Players completed the Judgments About Moral Behavior in Youth Sports Questionnaire (JAMBYSQ; Stephens, Bredemeier, & Shields, 1997), which assessed athletes' stage of moral development, team norm for aggression, and self-described likelihood to aggress against an opponent. Coaches were administered the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES; Feltz, Chase, Moritz, & Sullivan, 1999). Using multilevel modeling, results demonstrated that the team norm for aggression at the athlete and team level were significant predictors of athletes' self likelihood to aggress scores. Further, coaches' game strategy efficacy emerged as a positive predictor of their players' self-described likelihood to aggress. The findings contribute to previous research examining the socioenvironmental predictors of athletic aggression in youth sport by demonstrating the importance of coaching efficacy beliefs.
Matthew D. Bird, Graig M. Chow, Gily Meir and Jaison Freeman
This study investigated differences in stigmatization by others, self-stigma, and attitudes (value and discomfort) toward online counseling (OC) and face-to-face counseling (F2F), and the relationships between these variables, in college student-athletes (n = 101) and non-athletes (n = 101). Results revealed no differences in levels of stigmatization by others and self-stigma between student-athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, both groups reported higher value, and less discomfort, in F2F compared to OC, while non-athletes reported higher levels of value in F2F compared to student-athletes. A multiple group path analysis revealed no difference in the relationship of the stigma and attitudes variables between the two groups. Stigmatization by others was a significant positive predictor of self-stigma and value in OC. In addition, self-stigma was a significant negative predictor of value in F2F, and a significant positive predictor of discomfort in F2F. The current findings have implications for university counseling centers and athletic departments.
Deborah L. Feltz, Graig M. Chow and Teri J. Hepler
The Feltz (1982) path analysis of the relationship between diving efficacy and performance showed that, over trials, past performance was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy of performance. Bandura (1997) criticized the study as statistically “overcontrolling” for past performance by using raw past performance scores along with self-efficacy as predictors of performance. He suggests residualizing past performance by regressing the raw scores on self-efficacy and entering them into the model to remove prior contributions of self-efficacy imbedded in past performance scores. To resolve this controversy, we reanalyzed the Feltz data using three statistical models: raw past performance, residual past performance, and a method that residualizes past performance and self-efficacy. Results revealed that self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of performance in both residualized models than in the raw past performance model. Furthermore, the influence of past performance on future performance was weaker when the residualized methods were conducted.
Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard and Yanyun Yang
This manuscript seeks to offer insight about how coaches can better address drinking among collegiate student-athletes. Using a mixed-methods design, 519 NCAA coaches reported their attitudes and behaviors toward student-athlete drinking, and responded to open-ended questions about their perceived role, strategies, and challenges to addressing problems in this population. Three dimensions of coaches’ attitudes and behaviors toward student-athlete drinking emerged that were consistent regardless of the players’ or coach’s gender or division: Concerned Communication, Conditional Leniency, and Enforcement. Effective strategies identified by coaches included enforcement of policy, education about consequences of drinking, establishment of quality coach-athlete relationships, and management of athletes’ schedules. Coaches indicated the need to play a role in managing, educating, influencing, and supporting the student-athletes to prevent alcohol misuse. Coaches reported challenges regarding the culture of drinking on college campuses, individual differences (e.g., age) among student-athletes, acceptance and enforcement of the alcohol policy, lack of awareness about student-athletes’ activities, and identification of alcohol misuse.
Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner and Gershon Tenenbaum
The extent to and manner in which psychological states change as a function of physical effort and related physiological responses have been addressed separately in various theoretical frameworks. The authors explored a proposed conceptual scheme examining the relationships among perceived exertion, attentional allocation, and affective responses under different workload domains. Thirty male participants performed an incremental cycling test to assess the progression of rating of perceived exertion, attentional focus, affect, and felt arousal along a parallel increase in heart rate using ventilatory threshold as a reference point. Results revealed that ventilatory threshold acts as a metabolic landmark for the attentional shifts toward aversive sensory cues, sustained increases in perceived exertion, negative valence, and physiological activation. Monitoring the dynamics of perceived exertion, attention, and affect can complement physiological measures for an accurate control of training workloads during exercise prescription.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Larry A. Scanlan, Tatiana J. Klunchoo and Graig M. Chow
Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players’ open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.