The purpose of this investigation was to compare two instructional models designed to teach autistic children a bowling task. One strategy (referred to as the extra-stimulus prompt model) used extensive physical, visual, and verbal prompts while the second (referred to as the within-stimulus prompt model) minimized such prompts. With the theory of overselectivity, it was predicted that the within-stimulus prompt model would be the more effective. Both instructional models included a 14-level task analysis of bowling. Subjects were 6 autistic boys between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Group and time series designs were utilized; 3 subjects in each condition performed 332 trials of the task. The dependent variable was improvement on the bowling task as demonstrated by the task analytic level achieved by each subject. The student-teacher interaction was videotaped and assessed for number and types of prompts, reinforcement, and punishment. Nonparametric and visual analyses revealed that the extra-stimulus prompt group performed significantly better in bowling than did the within-stimulus prompt group. No differences occurred in reinforcement or punishment received.
Doug Collier and Greg Reid
Greg Reid, Douglas Collier and Michelle Cauchon
Visual, verbal, and physical prompting systems promote motor skill acquisition in learners who are autistic (Collier & Reid, 1987). The purpose of the present study was to contrast the effectiveness of two instructional models, one that emphasized visual prompting and one that stressed physical prompting. Both models were designed to teach autistic children a bowling skill that was subdivided into 19 task analytic steps. All four subjects received 120 trials under both instructional models in a counterbalanced fashion. It was hypothesized that physical prompting would be the most effective model, but only limited support was generated in this regard. The subjects did benefit from carefully designed instruction, however, thus replicating previous findings.
Sandra luliano, Geraldine Naughton, Greg Collier and John Carlson
Thirty-two elite junior athletes in two age categories, older than or equal to IS years old (O15) (8 females and 9 males) and less than 15 years old (U15) (8 females and 7 males), performed a laboratory-based duathlon (run-ride-run). At the completion of the event, significant body mass losses were recorded for all groups. Compared with the other three groups, the O15 males lost body mass at a greater absolute rate (1.26 ±0.06 kg ⋅ hr−1 vs. a mean of 0.62 ±0.11 kg ⋅ hr−1 for the other three groups) and a greater relative rate (1.95 ± 0.10% BM ⋅ hr−1 vs. a mean of 1.23 ± 0.19 %BM ⋅ hr−1 for the other three groups) (p < .05). No differences were observed between groups for fluid consumption. Subjects consumed more fluid (p < .05) during the cycle phase and postevent than preevenl or during the run phases. Results indicated that the athletes' fluid intake practices were insufficient to maintain adequate hydration during the simulated event.