“Clumsiness” as Syndrome and Symptom (Special Issue of Human Movement Science)
Motor Coordination Disorders in Children
Motor Behavior and Individuals with Disabilities: Linking Research and Practice
Physical activity participation of persons with disabilities might be enhanced by careful application of motor behavior research to instructional settings. However, it is argued that this research is not easily stated in terms that are useful to practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between theoretical research and practice, and to suggest research strategies that will translate findings into helpful information for instruction. A number of applied research strategies are proposed, intended to gradually move from laboratory-inspired problems to issues applicable in typical instructional settings. These strategies include a clear conceptual rationale for including people with disabilities in the research, task modifications, a powerful initial study, replications, investigating interactions, conducting comparative studies, modifying the unit of analysis, generalization, and instructional considerations.
Beginning APAQ’s Second Decade
Edited by Greg Reid
Ideas about Motor Behavior Research with Special Populations
Four types of motor behavior research that include special populations are described. These research areas are descriptive, program effectiveness, theory generalization, and theory construction. In addition, three levels of applied and basic research outlined by Christina (in press) are described and juxtaposed to the four types of motor behavior research. Current trends and potential areas of inquiry are highlighted in each. In particular, Christina’s Level 2 applied research is considered attractive for adapted physical activity researchers, as it is theory-driven with relevant tasks and fiinctional settings and may therefore contribute to a growing professional literature.
A Comparison of Two Models Designed to Teach Autistic Children a Motor Task
Doug Collier and Greg Reid
The purpose of this investigation was to compare two instructional models designed to teach autistic children a bowling task. One strategy (referred to as the extra-stimulus prompt model) used extensive physical, visual, and verbal prompts while the second (referred to as the within-stimulus prompt model) minimized such prompts. With the theory of overselectivity, it was predicted that the within-stimulus prompt model would be the more effective. Both instructional models included a 14-level task analysis of bowling. Subjects were 6 autistic boys between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Group and time series designs were utilized; 3 subjects in each condition performed 332 trials of the task. The dependent variable was improvement on the bowling task as demonstrated by the task analytic level achieved by each subject. The student-teacher interaction was videotaped and assessed for number and types of prompts, reinforcement, and punishment. Nonparametric and visual analyses revealed that the extra-stimulus prompt group performed significantly better in bowling than did the within-stimulus prompt group. No differences occurred in reinforcement or punishment received.
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Evidence-Based Practice1
Marcel Bouffard and Greg Reid
The evidence-based practice (EBP) movement has been extremely influential over the last 20 years. Fields like medicine, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nursing, psychology, and education have adopted the idea that policy makers and practitioners should use interventions that have demonstrated efficiency and effectiveness. This apparently straightforward idea is beginning to affect adapted physical activity; however, researchers and practitioners in our field often appear to be unaware of fundamental questions related to them. The major purpose of this paper is to outline and discuss 10 of these fundamental questions. This analysis leads us to conclude that EBP is a good direction to pursue in adapted physical activity if we develop a type of EBP congruent with the main tenets of our field.
Sport Adaptation, Participation, and Enjoyment of Students with and without Physical Disabilities
Vassilis Kalyvas and Greg Reid
The purpose was to investigate the effect of sport adaptations on participation and enjoyment of students with and without physical disabilities. Participants (ages 7-12) included 15 with a physical disability and 20 without a disability. Newcomb, a volleyball lead up game, was compared to an adapted newcomb game. Each game was played on three occasions. The participation variables were successful passes, unsuccessful passes, active time on task, inactive time on task, and off task time. Enjoyment was assessed by a questionnaire as well as by interviews. Sport adaptations generally increased participation of all students. Overall, most children enjoyed both games, although older students without a disability did express some dislike for the adapted game.