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Katrina D. DuBose, Cheryl L. Addy, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Gregory A. Hand and J. Larry Durstine

Background:

This study was performed to determine the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 16,681 adults (43 ± 0.44 y) enrolled in NHANES III.

Methods:

LTPA was classified as regularly active ( 5 d/wk moderate and/or 3 d/wk vigorous), irregularly active (some LTPA), or inactive (no LTPA). The MS was positive with three or more conditions: 1) abdominal obesity, 2) low HDL-C, 3) hypertriglyceridemia, 4) elevated blood pressure, or 5) elevated glucose. Logistic regression examined the relationship between LTPA and the MS, adjusting for age, race, smoking status, and educational attainment stratified by gender.

Results:

In men only, irregular activity and inactivity was related to an increase in the MS (irregular: OR = 1.52 95% CI 1.11, 1.23; inactive: OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.18, 1.98; test for trend P = 0.004). Inactivity increased the odds for abdominal obesity (P < 0.05).

Conclusions:

LTPA levels might influence the development of MS and abdominal obesity.

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Robin P. Shook, Nicole C. Gribben, Gregory A. Hand, Amanda E. Paluch, Gregory J. Welk, John M. Jakicic, Brent Hutto, Stephanie Burgess and Steven N. Blair

Background:

Subjective measures of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) rely on relative intensity whereas objective measures capture absolute intensity; thus, fit individuals and unfit individuals may perceive the same activity differently.

Methods:

Adults (N = 211) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 10 consecutive days to objectively assess sedentary time and MVPA. On day 8, participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to subjectively assess sitting time and MVPA. Fitness was assessed via a maximal treadmill test, and participants were classified as unfit if the result was in the bottom tertile of the study population by sex or fit if in the upper 2 tertiles.

Results:

Overall, estimates of MVPA between the IPAQ and SWA were not significantly different (IPAQ minus SWA, 67.4 ± 919.1 MVPA min/wk, P = .29). However, unfit participants overestimated MVPA using the IPAQ by 37.3% (P = .02), but fit participants did not (P = .99). This between-group difference was due to overestimation, using the IPAQ, of moderate activity by 93.8 min/wk among the unfit individuals, but underestimation of moderate activity among the fit participants by 149.4 min/wk.

Conclusion:

Subjective measures of MVPA using the IPAQ varied by fitness category; unfit participants overestimated their MVPA and fit participants accurately estimated their MVPA.

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Amanda E. Paluch, Robin P. Shook, Gregory A. Hand, Daniel P. O’Connor, Sara Wilcox, Clemens Drenowatz, Meghan Baruth, Stephanie Burgess and Steven N. Blair

Background: This study examined how life event occurrences and stressfulness influence objectively measured light through vigorous physical activity (PA) among young adults. Methods: Every 3 months over a 12-month period, 404 healthy young adults completed questionnaires on the occurrence and stress of 16 life events and wore an accelerometer for 10 days. Results: A modest positive relationship was seen between cumulative life event occurrences [between effect: β = 22.2 (9.7) min/d, P = .02] and cumulative stress [between effect: β = 7.6 (2.9) min/d, P = .01] with light through vigorous PA among men. When considering events individually, job change, starting a first job, beginning a mortgage, and changes in a relationship influenced men’s PA. For women, mortgage, starting a first job, job change, and engagement had significant associations. Life event stressfulness influenced PA in women more than in men. For men, stress from changes in a relationship or job positively influenced PA. Stress of a mortgage, quitting a job, changing jobs or a first job influenced women’s PA. Conclusion: Considering each life event individually was more informative than the summation of life events or summation of stress. Specific life events substantially altered PA, and this change varied by gender, direction of association, and PA intensity and duration.

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Gregory A. Hand, Robin P. Shook, Daniel P. O’Connor, Madison M. Kindred, Sarah Schumacher, Clemens Drenowatz, Amanda E. Paluch, Stephanie Burgess, John E. Blundell and Steven N. Blair

Background: The present study examined, among weight-stable overweight or obese adults, the effect of increasing doses of exercise energy expenditure (EEex) on changes in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), total body energy stores, and body composition. Methods: Healthy, sedentary overweight/obese young adults were randomized to one of 3 groups for a period of 26 weeks: moderate-exercise (EEex goal of 17.5 kcal/kg/wk), high-exercise (EEex goal of 35 kcal/kg/wk), or observation group. Individuals maintained body weight within 3% of baseline. Pre/postphysical activity between-group measurements included body composition, calculated energy intake, TDEE, energy stores, and resting metabolic rate. Results: Sixty weight-stable individuals completed the protocols. Exercise groups increased EEex in a stepwise manner compared with the observation group (P < .001). There was no group effect on changes in TDEE, energy intake, fat-free mass, or resting metabolic rate. Fat mass and energy stores decreased among the females in the high-exercise group (P = .007). Conclusions: The increase in EEex did not result in an equivalent increase in TDEE. There was a sex difference in the relationship among energy balance components. These results suggest a weight-independent compensatory response to exercise training with potentially a sex-specific adjustment in body composition.