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Gregory S. Kolt, Ruth P. Driver and Lynne C. Giles

Research on variables that encourage older adults to exercise is limited. This study was carried out to identify the participation motives of older Australians involved in regular exercise and sport. The 815 participants (399 men, 416 women) ranged in age from 55 to 93 years (M = 63.6, SD = 7.8) and were participating in their activities of choice at least once per week. All participants completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire for Older Adults. The most common exercise/sport activities that participants were involved in were walking, golf, lawn bowls, tennis, and swimming. The most highly reported motives for participation were to keep healthy, liking the activity, to improve fitness, and to maintain joint mobility. Principal-components analysis of the questionnaire revealed 6 factors: social, fitness, recognition, challenge/benefits, medical, and involvement. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in reasons for participation in exercise and sport based on gender, age, education level, and occupation.

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William Mummery, Gregory Kolt, Grant Schofield and Grant McLean

Background:

Physical activity is a key component of healthy aging. We investigated the relationships between physical activity measures and lifestyle risk factors.

Methods:

Representative population data (N = 1894) of New Zealand adults aged 60 years and older were analysed to study the association between physical activity, smoking, overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption.

Results:

Activity prevalence of four activity measures were 18.3% inactive/sedentary; 67.6% some recreational walking; 30.7% some vigorous activity; and 51.4% regular physical activity. Females were more likely than males to be inactive and activity levels decreased across age groups. Activity displayed a negative association to smoking and being overweight or obese, and a positive association with fruit and vegetable consumption.

Conclusion:

Associations between lifestyle risk factors and physical activity indicate a need to address the issue of healthy aging by means of a multi-factorial approach.

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Emma S. George, Louisa Jorm, Gregory S. Kolt, Hilary Bambrick and Sanja Lujic

Physical activity is an important factor in healthy aging and has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms. This association, however, is relatively understudied in older men. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the association between physical activity (Active Australia Survey) and psychological distress (Kessler-10). Participants were a sample of 17,689 men age ≥65 yr drawn from a large-scale Australian cohort study of people age 45 years and over (The 45 and Up Study). The likelihood of reporting high or very high levels of psychological distress decreased with increasing weekly sessions of physical activity. Compared with participants reporting no sessions of physical activity, the fully adjusted odds ratio for high or very high psychological distress was .66 (95% CI .51–.85) for men who undertook 1–6 sessions of physical activity per week and decreased to .57 (95% CI, .43–.79) for men who reported 16 or more weekly sessions. The cross-sectional findings show that older men who are more active are less likely to report psychological distress, regardless of their level of functional limitation. Further research, informed by these findings, is required to investigate causal pathways and the temporal sequence of events.

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Asmita Patel, Grant M. Schofield, Gregory S. Kolt and Justin W.L. Keogh

This study examined whether perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity differed based on allocation to 2 different types of primary-care activity-prescription programs (pedometer-based vs. time-based Green Prescription). Eighty participants from the Healthy Steps study completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor analysis was carried out to identify common themes of barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor scores were then used to explore between-groups differences for perceived barriers, benefits, and motives based on group allocation and demographic variables. No significant differences were found in factor scores based on allocation. Demographic variables relating to the existence of chronic health conditions, weight status, and older age were found to significantly influence perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Findings suggest that the addition of a pedometer to the standard Green Prescription does not appear to increase perceived motives or benefits or decrease perceived barriers for physical activity in low-active older adults.

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Maea Hohepa, Robert Scragg, Grant Schofield, Gregory S. Kolt and David Schaaf

Background:

Youth display suboptimal levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Few studies have examined the existence of the “displacement hypothesis” or the effect of parental strategies on activity behaviors during the after-school period.

Methods:

A total of 3471 students (12–18 years old) completed a self-report survey that assessed after-school physical activity and television (TV) use and perceived parental strategies (ie, encouragement to be active, TV-viewing rules). Participants were grouped into 4 activity groups: high TV/low active, high TV/active, low TV/low active, or low TV/active. Descriptive statistics and nominal logistic-regression analyses were conducted.

Results:

Compared with students who watched less than 1 h of TV, participants who watched ≥4 h of TV were half as likely to be active after school (≥4 h; adjusted odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI .40–.65). Compared with the low TV/active group, the other activity groups were at least 1.28 times more likely to have parents that provided only 1 parental strategy (encouragement for activity or TV rules) and up to 4.7 times more likely to have parents that provided neither strategy.

Discussion:

Sedentary behaviors are associated with displacement of active pursuits. Parental strategies exert a strong influence on after-school behaviors of high school students.

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Maea Hohepa, Grant Schofield, Gregory S. Kolt, Robert Scragg and Nick Garrett

Background:

Few studies have examined high school students’ physical activity habits using objective measures. The purpose of this study was to describe pedometer-determined habitual physical activity levels of youth.

Methods:

236 high school students (age 12–18 years) wore sealed pedometers for 5 consecutive days. Data were analyzed using generalizing estimating equations.

Results:

Mean steps/d (± SE) differed significantly by sex (males, 10,849 ± 381; females, 9652 ± 289), age (junior students [years 9–11], 11,079 ± 330; senior students [years 12 and 13], 9422 ± 334), time of week (weekday, 12,259 ± 287; weekend day, 8241 ± 329), and mode of transportation to and from school (walkers, 13,308 ± 483; car transit users, 10,986 ± 435). Only 14.5% of students achieved at least 10,000 steps on every day during the monitoring period.

Conclusion:

Daily step counts differed substantially by age, sex, time of week, and transportation mode to school.

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Britton W. Brewer, Joshua B. Avondoglio, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, John C. Brickner, Albert J. Petitpas, Gregory S. Kolt, Tania Pizzari, Adrian M.M. Schoo, Kelley Emery and Stephen J. Hatten

Context:

Adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation might influence outcomes.

Objective:

To examine the construct validity and interrater agreement of a measure of adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation.

Design:

Repeated-measures in both study 1 and study 2.

Participants:

43 student rehabilitation practitioners in study 1 and 12 patients undergoing rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in study 2.

Interventions:

Participants in study 1 rated the adherence of a simulated videotaped patient exhibiting high, moderate, and low adherence. Two certified athletic trainers rated the adherence of patients at 4 consecutive appointments in study 2.

Main Outcome Measure:

The Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.

Results:

In study 1, adherence ratings increased in a linear fashion across the 3 levels of adherence, and r WG(J) and rater-agreement-index values ranging from .84 to .95 were obtained. In study 2, the rater-agreement index was .94.

Conclusions:

Strong support was found for the construct validity and interrater agreement of the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.