Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author: Gregory S. Rhodes x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Patrick B. Wilson, Gregory S. Rhodes and Stacy J. Ingraham


Self-report (SR) has been the primary method used to assess fluid intake during endurance events, but unfortunately, little is known about the validity of SR. The purpose of this study was to compare SR fluid intake with direct measurement (DM) during a 70.3-mile triathlon.


Fifty-three (42 men, 11 women) individuals competing in a 70.3-mile triathlon participated in the study. On the 13.1-mile-run section of the triathlon, 11 research stations provided fluid in bottles filled with 163 mL of water or carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CEB). Participants submitted bottles 25 m past aid stations to be reweighed postrace. Participants also answered questions regarding fluid intake postrace. Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement were used to assess precision of the measures, while least-squares regression assessed linear agreement.


SR intakes during the run ranged from 0–1793, 0–1837, and 0–2628 mL for water, CEB, and total fluid, with corresponding DM intakes of 0–1599, 0–1642, and 0–2250 mL. DM and SR showed strong linear agreement for water, CEB, and total fluid (R 2 = .71, .80, and .80). Mean differences between the measures on the Bland-Altman plots were small (13–41 mL), but relatively large differences (±500 mL) between the measures were apparent for some participants.


SR is the predominant methodology used in field studies assessing hydration, despite little to no data confirming its validity. The results herein suggest that fluid-intake-assessment methodology should be chosen on a case-by-case basis and that caution should be used when interpreting data based on SR.

Restricted access

Patrick B. Wilson, John S. Fitzgerald, Gregory S. Rhodes, Chris J. Lundstrom and Stacy J. Ingraham


Analgesics are commonly used by individuals undertaking endurance training; unfortunately, many commonly-used analgesics cause significant adverse effects. Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) has been used effectively as an analgesic in several contexts, but to date, no research is available to evaluate ginger root’s effects in the context of endurance training.


Determine whether ginger root supplementation reduces muscle soreness and prevents impairments in muscle function following a long-distance training run.


Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.


University marathon training course.


Twenty college students (n = 8 for ginger root group and n = 12 for placebo group).


Supplementation with 2.2 g·day–1 of ginger root or placebo for three days before, the day of, and the day after a 20–22 mile training run.

Main Outcome Measures:

Four days before and 24-hr postrun, participants rated soreness on a 100-mm visual analog scale, while vertical jump (VJ), peak force, and average rate of force development (RFD) were assessed during a squat jump. Quade’s rank analysis of covariance was used to assess between-group differences.


Median (range) soreness during jogging at 24-hr postrun was lower with ginger root supplementation (37 mm, 15–58) compared with placebo (62 mm, 6–85) (F = 4.6, p = .04). No significant differences for VJ, peak force, and RFD were found between groups.


Ginger root may modestly reduce muscle soreness stemming from long-distance running, although it may have little to no effect on measures of muscle function during a VJ. Future studies should explore the mechanisms responsible for reductions in running-induced muscle soreness, as well as evaluate the benefit-to-risk profile of ginger root in the context of endurance training.