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A Naturalistic Study of the Directional Interpretation Process of Discrete Emotions during High-Stakes Table Tennis Matches

Guillaume Martinent and Claude Ferrand

The purpose of this study was to explore the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions experienced by table tennis players during competitive matches by adopting a naturalistic qualitative video-assisted approach. Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table tennis players (2 or 3 matches per participants). Nine discrete emotions were identified through the inductive analyses of the participants' transcriptions: anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, and hope. Inductive analyses revealed the emergence of 4 categories and 13 themes among the 9 discrete emotions: positive direction (increased concentration, increased motivation, increased confidence, positive sensations, and adaptive behaviors), negative direction (decreased concentration, decreased motivation, too confident, decreased confidence, negative sensations, and maladaptive behaviors), neutral direction (take more risk and take less risk), and no perceived influence on own performance. Results are discussed in terms of current research on directional interpretation and emotions in sport.

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Sponsor and Sponsees Interactions: Effects on Consumers’ Perceptions of Brand Image, Brand Attachment, and Purchasing Intention

Nicolas Chanavat, Guillaume Martinent, and Alain Ferrand

Notwithstanding the substantial development of sponsorship investigations, relationships between the sponsor and cosponsees and fan’s responses (i.e., cognitive, affective and conative) have not been investigated yet in a multiple sponsorship sport event context. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of commercial sponsorships on the intention to purchase sponsor products in relation to brand image and brand attachment. Furthermore, this researcher analyzed the relationships between a sponsor (adidas), an event (2006 FIFA Soccer World Cup Germany), a team (French National Soccer Team) and a top player (Zinédine Zidane). Structural equation modeling was used to conduct this research. The crucial results revealed that a multiple sponsorship arrangement creates interactions between the sponsor and the sponsees brands cognitive and affective stages. Secondly, the model demonstrated that multiple sponsorship activates brand behavioral dimensions (i.e., cognitive, affective and conative) according to the hierarchy of effects model (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961).

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A Temporal Study on Coach Behavior Profiles: Relationships With Athletes Coping and Affects Within Sport Competition

Higinio González-García, Guillaume Martinent, and Michel Nicolas

The study aimed to identify coach behavior profiles and explore whether athletes from distinct profiles significantly differed on coping and affects experienced within 2 hr before the competition and during the competition (measuring them 2 hr after the competition). A sample of 306 French athletes (M age = 22.24; SD = 4.91; 194 men and 112 women) participated in the study. The results revealed the emergence of two profiles: (a) a coaching engaged profile that stands out for moderate physical training and planning, technical skills, mental preparation, goal setting, competition strategies, personal rapport, and moderate negative personal rapport; and (b) a less engaged coaching profile with low physical training and planning, technical skills, mental preparation, goal setting, competition strategies, personal rapport, and moderate negative personal rapport. Memberships of coach behavior profiles were not confounded by athletes’ practice experience, athlete’s gender, and coach experience. Results of latent profile analyses with Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem method (BCH) method revealed that coping and affective states significantly differed across the coach behavior profiles. As a whole, the less engaged coaching profile engenders the worst outcomes in competition. In conclusion, the detection of less adaptive coaching profiles would be crucial to prevent negative outcomes in athletes during the competition. This might be using intervention programs adapted to the peculiarities of athletes from a particular coach behavior profiles.

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A Cluster Analysis of Affective States Before and During Competition

Guillaume Martinent, Michel Nicolas, Patrick Gaudreau, and Mickaël Campo

The purposes of the current study were to identify affective profiles of athletes both before and during the competition and to examine differences between these profiles on coping and attainment of sport goals among a sample of 306 athletes. The results of hierarchical (Ward’s method) and nonhierarchical (k means) cluster analyses revealed four different clusters both before and during the competition. The four clusters were very similar at the two measurement occasions: high positive affect facilitators (n = 88 and 81), facilitators (n = 75 and 25), low affect debilitators (n = 83 and 127), and high negative affect debilitators (n = 60 and 73). Results of MANOVAs revealed that coping and attainment of sport achievement goal significantly differed across the affective profiles. Results are discussed in terms of current research on positive and negative affective states.

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A Reciprocal Effects Model of the Temporal Ordering of Basic Psychological Needs and Motivation

Guillaume Martinent, Emma Guillet-Descas, and Sophie Moiret

Using self-determination theory as the framework, we examined the temporal ordering between satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs and motivation. We accomplished this goal by using a two-wave 7-month partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM) among a sample of 94 adolescent athletes (M age = 15.96) in an intensive training setting. The PLS-PM results showed significant paths leading: (a) from T1 satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence to T2 identified regulation, (b) from T1 external regulation to T2 thwarting and satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence, and (c) from T1 amotivation to T2 satisfaction of basic psychological need for relatedness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between basic psychological need and motivation varied depending on the type of basic need and motivation assessed. Basic psychological need for competence predicted identified regulation over time whereas amotivation and external regulation predicted basic psychological need for relatedness or competence over time.

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Emotions in Team Contact Sports: A Systematic Review

Mickaël Campo, Stephen Mellalieu, Claude Ferrand, Guillaume Martinent, and Elisabeth Rosnet

This study systematically reviewed the literature on the emotional processes associated with performance in team contact sports. To consider the entire emotional spectrum, Lazarus’s (1999) cognitive motivational relational theory was used as a guiding framework. An electronic search of the literature identified 48 of 5,079 papers as relevant. Anxiety and anger were found to be the most common emotions studied, potentially due to the combative nature of team contact sports. The influence of group processes on emotional experiences was also prominent. The findings highlight the need to increase awareness of the emotional experience in team contact sports and to develop emotion-specific regulation strategies. Recommendations for future research include exploring other emotions that might emerge from situations related to collisions (e.g., fright) and emotions related to relationships with teammates (e.g., guilt and compassion).

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Longitudinal Sport Motivation Among Young Athletes in Intensive Training Settings: Using Methodological Advances to Explore Temporal Structure of Youth Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire Scores

Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas, and Guillaume Martinent

This study aimed to examine the factor structure, the simplex structure, and the self-determination continuum of the Youth Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (YBRSQ); to test longitudinal invariance of the YBRSQ and to examine differential item functioning in the YBRSQ responses as a function of sex, type of sport, and competitive level; and to explore the dynamics of change and stability of motivational regulation across the competitive season in a sample of 736 adolescent athletes involved in intensive training settings across 3 measurement points (beginning, middle, and end). Results provided evidence of a simplex structure of YBRSQ scores and revealed differences between self-determination-theory-based measures of motivation in various contexts. Results revealed partial strict temporal invariance of the YBRSQ and did not reveal differential item functioning. Finally, the results demonstrated an increase in amotivation and external regulation and a decrease in intrinsic motivation across the season, probably because of daily pressures.

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Longitudinal Sport Motivation Among Young Athletes in Intensive Training Settings: The Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Thwarting in the Profiles of Motivation

Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas, and Guillaume Martinent

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal profiles of sport motivation using a 3-wave design (beginning, middle, and end of the season) among a sample of 736 adolescent athletes involved in intensive training centers. The authors explored whether several subgroups of athletes representing distinct motivation profiles emerged from the analyses and whether athletes reporting various scores of satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs (BPNS and BPNT) at time 1 (T1) belonged to distinct motivational profiles at T1, T2, and T3. Results of latent profile transition analyses showed 4 different profiles: highly self-determined, self-determined, moderate autonomous and controlled motivation, moderately self-determined (T1 and T2), and high autonomous and controlled motivation (T3) profiles. Moreover, the likelihood of belonging to particular profiles was significantly predicted by athletes’ BPNS and BPNT scores assessed at T1. Thus, a motivational profile approach may prove useful in understanding sport motivation as a dynamic system.

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Attentional Foci and Coping Strategies During Matches of Young Fencers in a Training Center: A Naturalistic Video-Assisted Study

Mathéo Maurin, Maëlle Bracco, Steven Le Pape, Noémie Lienhart, Cyril Bossard, Julie Doron, and Guillaume Martinent

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) identify attentional foci (AF) and coping strategies used by young fencers during matches and (b) explore the links between these variables using a grounded-theory approach. Using a naturalistic qualitative video-assisted approach, analyses revealed the emergence of five categories of AF (movements and techniques, strategies and tactics, situation evaluation, states, and extraneous attention) and six categories of coping strategies (mastery coping, internal regulation, goal-withdrawal strategies, behavioral regulation, no regulation, and automatic regulation). The grounded theory highlighted that pleasant emotional experiences tended to be related to mastery coping, which in turn favored the orientation of the attention toward AF that appeared to be most effective in winning points (i.e., opponent, distance, plan). Conversely, unpleasant emotional experiences were consistently associated with goal-withdrawal strategies (or no regulation), which generally led to a lack of AF and lower performance. Intervention suggestions are made in relation to the results of the proposed grounded theory.