Audio-cueing was used as the intervention to increase an experienced male physical educator’s use of verbal positive behavior feedback and specific positive skill feedback. The intervention was introduced by using a multiple baseline design across behaviors, with percent of management time as a concurrent baseline. Visual analysis of graphs showed the effectiveness of the intervention. Across both target behaviors, audio-cueing produced immediate and substantial changes as evidenced by changes in level and the absence of data overlap. Subsequent statistical analysis was possible in light of the absence of serial dependency in the data. T-test results supported the findings established through visual analysis. For both target behaviors, differences between baseline and intervention data were statistically significant (p<.01).
Hans van der Mars
Audiocueing by way of a microcassette recorder was used to change a female student teacher’s (S1) use of verbal praise of students’ overall class behavior. A second student teacher’s (S2) behavior teaching in the same setting was used as concurrent baseline measure. Both subjects taught K-3 classes at a rural elementary school. An ABAB reversal design was used to determine the relationship between the intervention and dependent variables. Results showed that when audiocues were introduced, verbal praise rate increased significantly. Upon removal of the audiocues, the rate of verbal praise decreased gradually. Percentage of specific verbal praise also increased upon presentation of audiocues. Experimental significance found through visual inspection of graphic data was supported statistically by f-test results. Findings of the exit interview with S1 are included. Suggestions for further research are provided.
Hans van der Mars
The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied. A multiple baseline research design across subjects was used to assess the intervention, consisting of teacher praise aimed at the subjects’ class conduct and motor skill performance. To ensure that (a) the intervention would be implemented, and (b) that the praise would be contingent upon appropriate student conduct and skill performance, audio-cues were provided by way of prerecorded cues on microcassettes. Two boys and one girl in a second-grade class served as subjects. Off-task behavior and teacher praise data were collected from videotapes of 15 regular physical education classes. Results showed that the baseline levels of off-task levels were reduced significantly after introduction of the intervention for each subject. Specific verbal praise was effective in reducing off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education.