In many dynamic interceptive actions performers need to integrate activity of manual and postural subsystems for successful performance. Groups of different skill level (poor and good catchers), (mean age = 9.1 and 9.4 respectively) were required to perform one-handed catches under different postural constraints: standing; standing in contact with a postural support aid by their side (PSAS) or to the left of their trunk (PSAF); Tandem; and sitting (control). Results revealed that, for poor catchers, the number of successful catches increased and grasp errors decreased significantly when sitting and with both postural aids in comparison with standing alone and Tandem conditions. Kinematic analyses showed that the postural aid devices reduced head sway in the anterior-posterior direction, while the PSAF reduced lateral head sway. The poor catchers’ performance benefited from an enlarged support surface, and reduction of lateral sway. Good catchers performed successfully under all task constraints, signifying the existence of a functional relationship between postural and grasping subsystems during performance. The results are discussed in the frame of Bernstein’s (1967) and Newell’s (1986) theory.
Georgios T. Angelakopoulos, Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis and George Grouios
Lambros Lazuras, Vassilis Barkoukis and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
The present study assessed adolescent athletes’ intentions toward doping by using an integrative theoretical model. Overall, 650 adolescent athletes from team and individual sports completed an anonymous structured questionnaire including demographic information, social desirability, achievement goals, motivational regulations, sportspersonship orientations, social cognitive variables, and anticipated regret. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the integrative model predicted 57.2% of the variance in doping intentions. Social cognitive variables and anticipated regret directly predicted doping intentions. Anticipated regret added 3% incremental variance on top of other predictors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that the effects of achievement goals on intentions were mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, whereas the effects of sportspersonship were mediated by attitudes and anticipated regret. The present study confirmed the dual structure of an integrative model of doping intentions and further highlighted the role of anticipated regret in the study of adolescent doping use.
Stefania Korologou, Vassilis Barkoukis, Lambros Lazuras and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
The current study used the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a guiding theoretical framework to assess differences in processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy among deaf individuals with different levels of physical activity. Overall, 146 participants (M age = 26.4 yr, SD = 4.28) completed anonymous questionnaires assessing the dimensions of the TTM, stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy. Analysis of variance showed that both experiential and behavioral processes of change were higher in the preparation, action, and maintenance stages than in the other stages. Accordingly, the benefits of physical activity participation were stronger in the preparation stage, whereas the costs were more evident in the precontemplation stage. Finally, self-efficacy at the preparation stage was higher than in the other stages. The findings revealed how different stages of physical activity participation can be explained through the TTM, and the implications for physical activity intervention are discussed.
Konstantinos Alexandris, Vasilis Barkoukis, Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis and George Grouios
The purpose of the study was to examine whether older adults (>60 years old) who participated in physical activity programs provided by a senior center in Greece perceived certain constraints as limiting reasons for their participation and whether perceived constraints could predict individuals’ intentions to continue participation. The sample of the study consisted of 125 adults age 60 and older. The principal-component analysis of the leisure-constraint scale revealed 4 constraint dimensions: facilities/services, individual/psychological, lack of partners, and accessibility/financial. The results revealed significant differences in the perception of constraints between frequent and infrequent participants in the individual/psychological and accessibility/financial constraints. The constraint dimensions were also shown to predict a significant and fairly high (40%) proportion of the variance in older adults’ intention to continue participation. The individual/psychological and accessibility/financial constraint dimensions were shown to be the major predictors. The implications of these results for promoting physical activity programs among older adults are discussed.