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Harold A. Riemer and Packianathan Chelladurai

This study investigated (a) the differences between the offensive and defensive personnel of football teams in preferred leadership, perceived leadership, and satisfaction with leadership, and (b) the relationships among preferred and perceived leadership, their congruence, and satisfaction with leadership. The study employed hierarchical regression procedures to test the congruence hypothesis derived from the multidimensional model of leadership. The results showed that defensive players preferred and perceived greater amounts of democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support than did offensive players. Also, the congruence of preferred and perceived leadership in the dimension of social support was critical to enhancing member satisfaction. On the other hand, perceived leadership (i.e., the actual behaviors) in training and instruction as well as positive feedback were stronger determinants of satisfaction with leadership than either the preferred leadership or the congruence of preferred and perceived leadership in these dimensions.

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Packianathan Chelladurai and Harold A. Riemer

Although several authors have emphasized the need to treat the athlete as the prime beneficiary of intercollegiate athletics, there has been little effort to assess athlete reactions to their experiences. This paper stresses the uniqueness of athletic teams, develops a rationale for measuring athlete satisfaction, and emphasizes that athlete satisfaction can be used as a measure of organizational effectiveness. A classification of the various facets of satisfaction in athletics is presented. A facet is classified by the following criteria: whether it (a) is task- or social-related, (b) is an outcome or a process, and (c) affects the individual or the team. The extent to which the identified facets of satisfaction are exhaustive, exclusive, and internally homogeneous is discussed.

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Harold A. Riemer and Packianathan Chelladurai

The development of the l5-dimension, 56-item Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ) was based on Chelladurai and Riemer’s (1997) classification of facets of athlete satisfaction. Qualitative procedures included item generation, expert judgment, and independent placement of items in relevant facets. Quantitative procedures, item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, involving 172 undergraduate students and 614 Canadian university athletes, confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Correlations between the ASQ’s subscales and scales of commitment and negative affectivity provided evidence of criterion-related validity. Reliability estimates (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged from .78 to .95. The 15 facets of ASQ encompassed salient aspects of athletic participation, performance (both individual and team), leadership, the team, the organization, and the athlete.

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Daniel F. Mahony, Mary A. Hums and Harold A. Riemer

The distribution of resources in intercollegiate athletics has been controversial for many years. Prior research indicated various stakeholders believed need-based distributions were fair and were more likely to be used. It was not clear, however, how the stakeholders determined need or which sports had the greatest needs. The results of the current study indicate that athletic administrators believe programs need more resources when they lack resources, have high program costs, or lack adequate resources to be competitively successful. Although these three reasons were each identified by all groups, Division I administrators cited competitive success more often, and Division III administrators cited high program costs more often. The current study also found that football was the sport believed to have the greatest needs at both the NCAA Division I and Division III levels, and men’s sports were generally believed to have greater needs.

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Daniel F. Mahony, Mary A. Hums and Harold A. Riemer

Hums and Chelladurai (1994b) found NCAA coaches and administrators believed distributing resources based on equality and need was more just than distributing them based on equity (i.e., contribution). However, Mahony and Pastore (1998) found actual distributions, particularly at the NCAA Division I level, appear to be based on equity over equality and need. The main purpose of the current study was to determine why the findings in these studies differed. The authors of the current study reexamined the principles from Hums and Chelladurai's (1994b) study, while making significant changes in the sample examined, asking new questions, and adding more distribution options. The results indicated that need based principles were considered to be the most fair, but there was less support for equality than in prior research. In addition, the current study found differences between Division I and Division III administrators with regards to some equality and equity based principles.

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Sebastian Harenberg, Harold A. Riemer, Erwin Karreman and Kim D. Dorsch

Competition is a common phenomenon and occurs frequently in sports. In high performance sports, competition takes place not only between teams (interteam competition) but also within a team (intrateam competition). In the intrateam competition, coaches might play a central role because of their power to structure competition within their teams. Yet, there is a lack of research exploring how coaches facilitate this type of competition. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to explore how university-level team sport coaches’ experience, structure and use intrateam competition. Eight full-time Canadian Interuniversity Sports head coaches participated in semistructured interviews. The participants indicated that intrateam competition involves two distinct types of competition: situational and positional competition. While situational competition occurs primarily in practices, positional competition is an ongoing, continual process in which athletes who occupy the same position compete for playing time. The coaches shared important considerations about how to carefully structure and use both types of competition constructively. The study is an original account of intrateam competition as a multifaceted, constructive process within high performance sport teams.

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Sebastian Harenberg, Harold A. Riemer, Erwin Karreman and Kim Dorsch

The study explored the competition between teammates for playing time (i.e., positional competition) within university team sports from the athletes’ perspective. Sixteen Canadian interuniversity team sport athletes (11 women, 5 men) participated in semistructured interviews. Results revealed that positional competition (a) occurs between players in the same position, (b) is necessary to determine playing time, (c) is an ongoing, omni-present process, and (d) happens under the awareness of the coach. Furthermore, various inputs (by the individual athlete, team, coach), processes (performance-related, information-related), and outcomes (individual, collective) became apparent. Positional competition is a group process that occurs across multiple competitive situations (e.g., practices, games). Future research is needed to clearly define and operationalize it as its own construct.

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Janet S. Fink, Donna L. Pastore and Harold A. Riemer

This study applies a framework of diversity initiatives as a basis of exploration into top management beliefs and diversity management strategies of Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations. This framework utilizes issues of power, demographic and relational differences, and past literature regarding specific diversity strategies to empirically assess these organizations' outlooks regarding employee diversity. Results of the study suggest that Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations operate in cultures that value similarity. Demographic variables predicted a significant amount of variance in employees' perceptions of diversity management strategies. In addition, demographic differences (being different from one's leader) accounted for an even greater amount of variance in these perceptions. Top management's beliefs in the benefits of diversity were related to perceptions of different diversity practices. That is, high beliefs resulted in higher levels of diversity management practice. Discussion of the findings relative to current theory in sport and implications for sport managers are noted.

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Daniel F. Mahony, Harold A. Riemer, James L. Breeding and Mary A. Hums

Prior research has found that coaches and administrators at NCAA institutions believed distributing resources equally or based on program needs was fairer than distributing them based on program contributions. The current studies build on these findings by examining the views of fairness among college athletes and other college students in a hypothetical intercollegiate athletics setting (N = 150) and a hypothetical sport business setting (N = 150). In both settings, equality of treatment and need are most likely to be chosen as the fairest allocation methods. Although there are no group differences in the sport business setting, chi-square analysis and analysis of fairness ratings indicate some group differences in the intercollegiate athletics setting. Women are stronger supporters of equal distributions and equal reductions, whereas men are more supportive of making decisions based on need and contribution of the program.