While exciting and energizing, adding sport programs is a major undertaking for any college athletic department. A broad overview of considerations associated with National Collegiate Athletic Association sport offerings is outlined in this case using reinstatement of football as the context. The case is intended to introduce students to the costs, benefits, risks, and complexity of institutional decisions in one area of collegiate athletics. Students are assigned a role and challenged to complete an operating budget, determine the financial viability of football, consider a variety of nonfinancial factors, and make a decision about whether Gridiron University should reinstate football. Although football is the sport in this scenario, the principles identified in the case apply to other sports and vary by degree not type.
Heather J. Lawrence, Andy J. Fodor, Chris L. Ullrich, Nick R. Kopka and Peter J. Titlebaum
Athena Yiamouyiannis, Heather J. Lawrence, Mary A. Hums and B. David Ridpath
Intercollegiate athletics administrators face many difficult and complex issues throughout the course of their careers related to balancing athletics budgets, remaining competitive in select sports and complying with Title IX. To better prepare future athletics administrators to handle these challenges, the authors provide background information on the complexities of the issue, discuss use of the Responsible Decision Making Model for Athletics (RDMMA) as a tool to assist in the process, and demonstrate the use of this model as applied to intercollegiate athletics. The RDMMA provides a framework from which to organize information, ensure all constituencies are considered, save time in decision making, and evaluate intended and unintended consequences of decisions. Professors can use the RDMMA as a tool in the classroom to bridge the gap between academic theory and practical application of these concepts to help guide future athletics administrators on how to approach complex issues and responsibilities.
Heather M. Logan-Sprenger, George J. F. Heigenhauser, Graham L. Jones and Lawrence L. Spriet
This study investigated the effects of progressive mild dehydration during cycling on whole-body substrate oxidation and skeletal-muscle metabolism in recreationally active men. Subjects (N = 9) cycled for 120 min at ~65% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak 22.7 °C, 32% relative humidity) with water to replace sweat losses (HYD) or without fluid (DEH). Blood samples were taken at rest and every 20 min, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and at 40, 80, and 120 min of exercise. Subjects lost 0.8%, 1.8%, and 2.7% body mass (BM) after 40, 80, and 120 min of cycling in the DEH trial while sweat loss was not significantly different between trials. Heart rate was greater in the DEH trial from 60 to 120 min, and core temperature was greater from 75 to 120 min. Rating of perceived exertion was higher in the DEH trial from 30 to 120 min. There were no differences in VO2, respiratory-exchange ratio, total carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (HYD 312 ± 9 vs. DEH 307 ± 10 g), or sweat rate between trials. Blood lactate was significantly greater in the DEH trial from 20 to 120 min with no difference in plasma free fatty acids or epinephrine. Glycogenolysis was significantly greater (24%) over the entire DEH vs. HYD trial (433 ± 44 vs. 349 ± 27 mmol · kg−1 · dm−1). In conclusion, dehydration of <2% BM elevated physiological parameters and perceived exertion, as well as muscle glycogenolysis, during exercise without affecting whole-body CHO oxidation.
Ellen J. Staurowsky, Heather Lawrence, Amanda Paule, James Reese, Kristy Falcon, Dawn Marshall and Ginny Wenclawiak
As a measure of progress, the experiences today of women athletes in the state of Ohio are far different from those attending institutions of higher learning just after the passage of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972. But how different, and how much progress has been made? The purpose of this study was to assess the level of progress made by compiling and analyzing data available through the Equity in Athletics Disclosure reports filed by 61 junior colleges, four year colleges, and universities in the State of Ohio over a four year span of time for the academic years 2002-2006.2 The template for this study was the report completed by the Women’s Law Project examining gender equity in intercollegiate athletics in colleges and universities in Pennsylvania (Cohen, 2005), the first study of its kind. Similar to that effort, this study assesses the success with which intercollegiate athletic programs in Ohio have collectively responded to the mandates of Title IX in areas of participation opportunities and financial allocations in the form of operating budgets, scholarship assistance, recruiting and coaching.3