Walking is a common physical activity reported by individuals with mental retardation (MR). This study examined the accuracy and feasibility of pedometers for monitoring walking in 20 adults with MR. Also, step counts and distance walked were recorded for one week. Pedometer counts were highly consistent with actual step counts during normal and fast paced walking on two ground surfaces. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above .95. A t-test revealed no gender differences in walking activity. A 2 × 2 ANOVA indicated that participants with Down Syndrome (DS) accumulated significantly fewer step counts than those without DS and participants walked more on weekdays than weekends.
Heidi I. Stanish
Greg Reid and Heidi Stanish
Adapted physical activity has debated its professional and disciplinary status, but agreement has not been achieved. As a means of objectively evaluating the field for evidence of discipline status, the contents of APAQ (all issues between 1984-2000) and Clinical Kinesiology (1991-2000) were reviewed and compared against four criteria of a discipline: unique knowledge base, methodology, theoretical framework, and terminology. The review indicated that adapted physical activity has a distinct knowledge base but borrows considerable terminology, research methodology, and theory from allied fields. This is likely a reflection of our history, which has been tied to medicine, kinesiology, physical and special education, and some therapies. We conclude that adapted physical activity is a professional field of study with a crossdisciplinary knowledge base, rather than a discipline in its own right.
Heidi I. Stanish and Christopher C. Draheim
This study measured walking activity in 103 adults (65 males, 38 females) with mental retardation (MR) using two instruments. Participants wore a pedometer for seven consecutive days and were administered the NHANES III Physical Activity Survey. The mean weekly step count was 58,321 ± 26,896 and only 21.4% of the participants recorded 10,000 steps/day. There was no association between weekly step counts and walking bouts per week (r = .01) or walking min per week (r = -.01). Only 17.5% of the participants reported engaging in five bouts of MVPA per week totaling 30 min per bout. The percent agreement between participants meeting the recommended 10,000 steps/day and those meeting the recommended 30 min of MVPA five days per week was 68.9%.
Georgia C. Frey, Heidi I. Stanish and Viviene A. Temple
This review characterizes physical activity behavior in youth with intellectual disability (ID) and identifies limitations in the published research. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from MEDLINE, EBSCOhost Research Databases, Psych Articles, Health Source, and SPORT Discus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses up to June 2007. Data were extracted from each study using a template of key items that included participant population, study design, data source, and outcome measure. Nineteen manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Findings were mixed, with various studies indicating that youth with ID have lower, similar, and higher physical activity levels than peers without disabilities. Only two studies provided enough information to determine that some youth with ID were meeting minimum physical activity standards. Significant methodological limitations prohibit clear conclusions regarding physical activity in youth with ID.
Heidi I. Stanish, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Christopher C. Draheim and Hans van der Mars
The purpose was to compare two conditions (leader-plus-video, video-only) that involved different levels of support on facilitating engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults with mental retardation (MR). Engagement was examined during 10-min aerobic dance sessions conducted 3 days per week over a 10-week experimental period followed by a 4-week maintenance period. The experimental design was single subject reversal (B-A-B-A). Participants were 17 adults (mean age = 42.6 years) with MR (5 females, 12 males) employed at a sheltered workshop. Visual analysis of graphed data revealed no meaningful difference between leader-plus-video and video-only conditions on MVPA engagement. Over 75% of the participants chose to attend each session over the 10-week experiment. Approximately 60% chose to attend during the 4-week maintenance period. Persons who attended, however, did not necessarily engage in MVPA.
Heidi Stanish, Carol Curtin, Aviva Must, Sarah Phillips, Melissa Maslin and Linda Bandini
The authors compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy between adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was verbally administered to 35 adolescents with ASD and 60 TD adolescents. Compared with TD adolescents, fewer adolescents with ASD enjoyed team sports (65% vs. 95%, p < .001) and physical education (84% vs. 98%, p = .02). A greater proportion of adolescents with ASD perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (16% vs. 0%, p < .01), and fewer believed that physical activity was a way to make friends (68% vs. 97%, p < .001). Fewer adolescents with ASD preferred to do physical activity in their free time (25% vs. 58%, p < .01). Most adolescents with ASD felt that physical activity is fun (84%), but the proportion was lower than in TD adolescents (98%, p = .03). Some perceptions about physical activity were similar between the 2 groups, but differences identified may inform program development.
Heidi I. Stanish, Carol Curtin, Aviva Must, Sarah Phillips, Melissa Maslin and Linda G. Bandini
Youths with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents.
A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age, 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age, 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons.
Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone with whom to do physical activity (64% vs 93%: P < .001), and a greater percentage of adolescents with ID perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs 0%; P < .001). Fewer adolescents with ID believed that physical activity would be good for their health (92% vs 100%; P = .05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (P = .02). A large percentage of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance (95% of TD adolescents, P = .06).
Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified.
Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Christopher Bolling, Carly Wright, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi I. Stanish and Susan B. Sisson
The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth.
The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric.
Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators.
Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.