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  • Author: Helen Gonçalves x
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Inacio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva, Mario Renato Azevedo and Helen Gonçalves

Objective:

To explore the association between family and friends’ social support and leisure-time physical activity (PA) in adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional population-based study, conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Leisure-time PA was measured with the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Those who reported PA practice ≥ 150 minutes on the week before the interview were considered active. Social support was evaluated through the Social Support Scale for PA and classified according to the type of PA. For analyzing the association between social support and PA, Poisson regression model was used. Analyses were stratified by sex and interactions with socioeconomic level and age were explored.

Results:

Men and women who received social support from family and friends simultaneously were about 3 times more active than their counterparts. Friends’ social support presented, in all analyses, stronger associations with PA than family support. Interactions with socioeconomic level and age were observed.

Conclusion:

Interventions targeting individuals and their social environment are likely to have greater effectiveness than those targeted on one of these aspects only.

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Virgílio Viana Ramires, Samuel Carvalho Dumith and Helen Gonçalves

Background:

Physical activity (PA) practice has been inversely associated to body fat (BF) and recommended as a way to reduce and prevent obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association of PA and BF in adolescence.

Methods:

The review includes 18 longitudinal studies found in the PubMed database, comprising papers published from January 1990 to July 2014. Studies assessing BF only through body mass index were excluded.

Results:

Among the outcomes analyzed, waist circumference, skinfolds, and absolute and relative fat mass measurement were identified. Questionnaires were the more predominant way to evaluate PA. Most studies showed that PA promotes a protective effect against a higher BF gain.

Conclusion:

It was concluded that PA has a protective effect against BF with differences between the genders and according to the BF marker or measurement assessed; higher intensity PA leads to a greater effect against BF gain in both genders; and the maintenance or increase of PA level on BF observed through analysis of change in PA level yielded more consistent findings in the relation between PA and BF.

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Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Philip H. Quanjer, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Helen Gonçalves, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Pedro Curi Hallal, Fernando Barros and Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

Background:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity from 11 to 15 years of age and pulmonary function (PF) gain from 15 to 18 years of age among adolescents in a birth cohort in Brazil.

Methods:

Longitudinal analysis of the individuals participating in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at ages 11 and 15, spirometry was performed at ages 15 and 18 (n = 3571). Outcome variables assessed were gains in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Crude and adjusted linear regressions, stratified by sex, and mediation analyses were performed.

Results:

Boys who were active (leisure-time and total physical activity) at ages 11 and 15 had higher gains in FEV1, FVC, and PEF than those who were inactive. Vigorous-intensity physical activity in boys was also associated with FEV1 and FVC gains. Mediation analyses showed that height at age 18 accounted for 5% to 75% of the association between physical activity and PF gains. No significant associations were found among girls.

Conclusions:

Physical activity in early adolescence is associated with gains in PF by the end of adolescence in boys.

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Inacio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva, Alan Goularte Knuth, Grégore Iven Mielke, Mario Renato Azevedo, Helen Gonçalves and Pedro Curi Hallal

Background:

Most of physical activity surveillance data are derived from high-income countries. The aim of the current study was to report time trends in leisure-time physical activity.

Methods:

Population-based surveys were conducted in the city of Pelotas, Brazil in 2003 and 2010, including individuals aged 20+ years. Physical activity was assessed using the leisure-time section of the long version of the IPAQ. A cut-off point of 150 min/wk was used in the analyses. Methodologies were virtually identical in both surveys.

Results:

In 2003, 26.8% (95% CI 24.3; 29.2) of the participants were classified as active in leisuretime, as compared with 24.4% (95% CI 22.6; 26.2) in 2010. The proportion of subjects reporting 0 minutes per week of walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity practice also did not vary between 2003 and 2010. However, the proportion of active adults decreased from 39.9% (95% CI 33.0; 42.7) in 2003 to 29.7% (95% CI 24.9; 34.5) in 2010 among high-income participants. Males were more active than females in both surveys.

Conclusions:

Leisure-time physical activity is stable among adults living in the South of Brazil, but high-income participants are becoming less active over time. Scaling up effective and promising physical activity interventions is urgently needed in Brazil.

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Pedro C. Hallal, Jeovany Martínez-Mesa, Carolina V.N. Coll, Grégore I. Mielke, Márcio A. Mendes, Márcio B. Peixoto, Tiago N. Munhoz, Virgilio V. Ramires, Maria Cecilia Assunção, Helen Gonçalves and Ana M. B. Menezes

Aim:

To evaluate the longitudinal association between physical activity behavior at 11 years of age and the incidence of mental health problems from 11 to 15 years of age.

Methods:

Individuals born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993 have been followed up since birth. At 11 and 15 years of age, mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). At 11 years of age, physical activity was assessed through a validated questionnaire. The continuous SDQ score at 15 years was used as the outcome variable. The main exposure was physical activity behavior at 11 years of age divided into 3 categories (0, 1−299, >300 min/wk).

Results:

The incidence of mental health problems from 11 to 15 years was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.4−14.9). At 11 years, 35.2% of the adolescents achieved 300 min/wk of physical activity. In the unadjusted analysis, physical activity was inversely related to mental health problems (P = .04). After adjustment for confounders, the association was no longer significant in the whole sample but was still significant among boys.

Conclusion:

Physical activity appears to be inversely related to mental health problems in adolescence, but the magnitude of the association is weak to moderate.

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Priscila M. Nakamura, Grégore I. Mielke, Bernardo L. Horta, Maria Cecília Assunção, Helen Gonçalves, Ana M.B. Menezes, Fernando C. Barros, Ulf Ekelund, Soren Brage, Fernando C. Wehrmeister, Isabel O. Oliveira and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

Physical inactivity is responsible for 7% of diabetes deaths worldwide, but little is known whether low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence increase the risk of diabetes in early adulthood. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA throughout adolescence and HbA1c concentration in early adulthood.

Methods:

HbA1c was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PA was assessed by self-report at the ages of 11, 15, and 18 years and by accelerometry at the ages of 13 (subsample) and 18 years. The loss percentages of follow up were 12.5% at 11 years, 14.4% at 15 years, and 18.7% at 18 years.

Results:

At 18 years, boys showed higher HbA1c than girls. At age 18 years, accelerometrybased PA at 18 years was inversely related to HbA1c levels in boys. Self-reported leisure-time PA at ages 11, 15, and 18 were unrelated to HbA1c in both genders. PA at 13 years of age was unrelated to HbA1c among both genders. In trajectory analysis, PA and accelerometer PA trajectories were not associated with later HbA1c.

Conclusions:

Objectively measured PA at 18 years was cross-sectionally inversely associated with HbA1c in boys only. No prospective associations were identified.