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Richard Collins, Katie Evans-Jones and Helen L. O’Connor

In response to the recent literature regarding the development of applied sport psychologists’ service philosophies (Lindsay, Breckon, Thomas, & Maynard, 2007), three neophyte psychologists take an autoethnographical approach to detailing how they developed their current philosophies. Using vignettes and personal accounts of their experiences they describe how reflection on their beliefs and values about people, behavior, sport, and change has underpinned their development as practitioners. The three authors detail how their delivery has developed from an approach that initially relied heavily on one framework into a more client-led approach that is more congruent with their beliefs and how this has in turn enhanced their effectiveness as practitioners. The implications of this reflective process for other neophytes is explored in relation to the experiences of the three authors.

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

Introduction: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may enhance endurance performance. No previous study has directly compared distinct IPC protocols for optimal benefit. Purpose: To determine whether a specific IPC protocol (ie, number of cycles, amount of muscle tissue, and local vs remote occlusion) elicits greater performance outcomes. Methods: Twelve cyclists performed 5 different IPC protocols 30 min before a blinded 375-kJ cycling time trial (TT) in a laboratory. Responses to traditional IPC (4 × 5-min legs) were compared with those to 8 × 5-min legs and sham (dose cycles), 4 × 5-min unilateral legs (dose tissue), and 4 × 5-min arms (remote). Rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate were recorded at each 25% TT completion. Power (W), heart rate (beats/min), and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) (mL · kg−1 · min−1) were measured continuously throughout TTs. Magnitude-based-inference statistics were employed to compare variable differences to the minimal practically important difference. Results: Traditional IPC was associated with a 17-s (0, 34) faster TT time than sham. Applying more dose cycles (8 × 5 min) had no impact on performance. Traditional IPC was associated with likely trivial higher blood lactate and possibly beneficial lower V˙O2 responses vs sham. Unilateral IPC was associated with 18-s (−11, 48) slower performance than bilateral (dose tissue). TT times after remote and local IPC were not different (0 [−16, 16] s). Conclusion: The traditional 4 × 5-min (local or remote) IPC stimulus resulted in the fastest TT time compared with sham; there was no benefit of applying a greater number of cycles or employing unilateral IPC.

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Holly R. Wyatt, John C. Peters, George W. Reed, Gary K. Grunwald, Mary Barry, Helen Thompson, Joanie Jones and James O. Hill

Background:

Obesity is an epidemic in the United States, yet few programs have been implemented on a widespread basis to deal with it. Colorado on the Move is a state-wide program with a specific quantifiable behavioral goal for increasing lifestyle physical activity (i.e. walking) and decreasing energy intake to prevent weight gain.

Methods:

A nonrandomized intervention trial designed to increase walking by 2000 steps/d using electronic step counters.

Results:

The intervention was effective in increasing average steps/d by at least 2000 over a 14-wk period.

Conclusion:

The Colorado on the Move intervention was effective in significantly increasing physical activity over a 14-wk period. Steps/d appears to be a good target for use in interventions to increase physical activity. Simply increasing physical activity in the population by 2000 steps/d could help in preventing the average yearly increase in body weight seen in the US population.