Context: In competitive swimming, many swimmers experience low back pain (LBP). Lumbar hyperextension may cause LBP, and tight hip-flexor muscle may cause lumbar extension during swimming. Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the features of the elastic moduli of the muscles and the lumbar extension when swimmers with LBP perform a dolphin kick (DK). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Single center. Other Participants: Eleven male college swimmers were enrolled as the LBP group (who have LBP when swimming and during a lumbar extension), and 21 male college swimmers were recruited as the control group (no LBP). Interventions: The elastic moduli of the psoas major, iliacus, teres major, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and pectoralis minor were measured through ultrasonic shear wave elastography. The lumbar and hip extension angles during a DK were measured using a video camera. The passive hip extension and shoulder-flexion range of motion (ROM) were measured using a goniometer. Main Outcome Measures: Muscle elastic moduli and lumbar extension angles during DK. Results: The characteristics, muscle elastic moduli, DK motion, and ROM were compared between the 2 groups. LBP group demonstrated significantly higher elastic modulus of the psoas major and lower modulus of pectoralis minor compared with the control group. Also, LBP group showed greater lumbar extension during a DK and less hip extension ROM than the control group. Conclusions: The higher elastic modulus of the psoas major and greater lumbar extension during a DK may be related to the LBP in swimmers.
Gakuto Kitamura, Hiroshige Tateuchi and Noriaki Ichihashi
Hiroshige Tateuchi, Noriaki Ichihashi, Masahiro Shinya and Shingo Oda
Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) have difficulty with mediolateral postural control. Since the symptom of hip OA includes joint pain, which mostly occurs upon initial movement, patients with hip OA might have disabling problems with movement initiation. This study aimed to identify the movement strategy during the anticipatory postural adjustments in the lateral step motion in patients with hip OA. We studied 18 female subjects with unilateral hip OA and 10 healthy subjects, and measured temporal, kinetic, and kinematic variables. Patients with hip OA required a longer duration of anticipation phase than the control subjects, the total duration of lateral stepping was not different between the groups. Displacement of the center of mass to the supporting (affected) side during the anticipation phase was not different between the two groups. These findings suggest that, in patients with hip OA, the center of mass slowly moved to the affected side. Furthermore, patients with hip OA showed greater shift of the trunk to the supporting side than did the control subjects. These movement characteristics might contribute to the achievement of both protection of the affected hip joint and quickness in the subsequent lateral step in patients with hip OA.