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Hongjun Yu and Andiara Schwingel

Objective: This study examined the associations between sedentary behavior, physical activity, and health care expenditures among Chinese older adults. Method: We conducted a survey on 4,165 older men and women living in major cities in China. Sedentary behavior and physical activity were measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly questionnaire. Health care costs were assessed by self-reported out-of-pocket health care expenditures across outpatient care, inpatient care, medication, and formal caregiver expenses. Results: Sedentary behavior was associated with an increase in annual out-of-pocket health care expenditures by approximately USD$37 for each additional sedentary hour (p < .001). Physical activity was associated with a decrease in annual health care expenditures by approximately USD$1.2 for each one Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score (p < .001). Physical activity was a less salient indicator of health care expenditure for men than women. Conclusions: Reducing sedentary behavior among older men and women and promoting physical activity, especially among men, may be important strategies to reduce out-of-pocket health care expenditures in China.

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Hongjun Yu, Xiaoping Chen, Weimo Zhu and Chunmei Cao


To examine the effectiveness of threshold and polarized models in the training organization of Chinese top-level sprint speed skaters using a 2-y quasi-experimental design.


Two years (2004–05 and 2005–06 seasons) of the Chinese national speed-skating team’s daily training load (N = 9; 5 men, 23.6 ± 1.7 y, weight 76.6 ± 4.1 kg, competitive experience 5.0 ± 0.8 y, 500-m time 35.45 ± 0.72 s, 1000-m time 71.18 ± 2.28 s; 4 women, 25.3 ± 6.8 y, 73.0 ± 8.5 kg, 6.3 ± 3.5 y, 37.81 ± 0.46 s, 75.70 ± 0.81 s) were collected and analyzed. Each season’s training load included overall duration (calculated in min and km), frequency (calculated by overall sessions), and training intensity (measured by ear blood lactate or estimated by heart rate), Their performances at national, World Cup, and Olympic competitions during the 2 seasons (2004–06), as well as lactate data measured 15 and 30 min after these competitions, were also collected and analyzed. Based on the lactate data (<2, 2–4, >4 mmol/L), training zones were classified as low, moderate, and high intensity.


The total durations and frequencies of the training load were similar across the seasons, but a threshold-training model distribution was used in 2004–05, and a polarized-training-load organization in 2005–06. Under the polarized-training model, or load organization, all speed skaters’ performance improved and their lactate after competition decreased considerably.


Training-intensity distribution based on a polarized-training model led to the success in top Chinese sprint speed skaters in the 2005–06 season.