The present investigation tested the conceptual links between goal orientations and achievement anxiety which have been suggested by Roberts (1986) and Dweck and Leggett (1988). One hundred and eleven junior fencers between the ages of 10 and 18 completed a series of questionnaires measuring achievement goals (TEOSQ), perceived ability and multidimensional state anxiety (CSAI-2) on four occasions prior to a regional fencing tournament. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived ability was a consistent predictor of all three dimensions of the CSAI-2 at each different time period. In addition, an ego orientation was found to contribute significantly to the prediction of cognitive anxiety on two occasions prior to competition. When goals assessed immediately before performing were entered as predictors of CSAI-2 dimensions, a task orientation was found to contribute to the prediction of both somatic anxiety and confidence. The findings also suggest that an awareness of an athlete’s achievement goals and perceived ability will allow coaches a more parsimonious understanding of the motivational antecedents of precompetitive anxiety than previous approaches which have considered other motivational constructs to be crucial antecedents of precompetitive affect (e.g., Swain & Jones, 1992).
Motivational Antecedents of Precompetitive Anxiety in Youth Sport
Howard K. Hall and Alistair W. Kerr
Predicting Achievement Anxiety: A Social-Cognitive Perspective
Howard K. Hall and Alistair W. Kerr
Goal Setting in Sport: Clarifying Recent Anomalies
Howard K. Hall and Anthony T.J. Byrne
Recent empirical evidence (Weinberg, Bruya, & Jackson, 1985) has brought into question whether the positive beneficial effects of goal setting found in organizational settings are directly generalizable to the domain of sport. This investigation attempted to determine whether increased control over powerful extraneous variables influencing motivation would enable goal-setting effects to be observed in sport settings, and second, it examined the utility of either flexible subject-set subgoals or rigid experimenter subgoals as adjuncts to long-term goals. Forty-three males and 11 females were randomly assigned by class to one of four experimental conditions. Following baseline trial under do best instructions, subjects performed three trials on an endurance task under their assigned experimental conditions. A 4 × 3 (Goal Group × Trials) ANCOVA with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline performance as the covariate indicated that groups holding subgoals performed significantly better than those with do best instructions, whereas performance for those with only long-term goals approached significance. These findings clearly demonstrate a need to further understand the process of goal setting if it is to be successfully applied as an intervention technique to enhance motivation and sport performance.
Perfectionism, Burnout, and Depression in Youth Soccer Players: A Longitudinal Study
Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill, and Howard K. Hall
The relationship between perfectionism, burnout and depression among youth soccer players is of interest due to the competitive academy environments that must be navigated in order to become a professional soccer player. Three alternative theoretical models have been proposed to explain the relationship between perfectionism, burnout and depression. These models state that perfectionism is (a) a vulnerability factor for burnout and depression (vulnerability model), (b) a consequence of burnout and depression (complication/scar model), or (c) that the relationships are reciprocal (reciprocal relations model). The purpose of this study was to test these three models in youth soccer players. One hundred and eight male soccer players (M = 16.15 years, SD = 1.84) from professional clubs completed measures of perfectionism, burnout symptoms, and depressive symptoms twice, three months apart. Cross-lagged panel analysis provided support for a reciprocal relations model for burnout symptoms and a complication/scar model for depressive symptoms.
Precompetitive Anxiety in Sport: The Contribution of Achievement Goals and Perfectionism
Howard K. Hall, Alistair W. Kerr, and Julie Matthews
This investigation employed Smith’s (1996) model of performance-related anxiety to examine links between perfectionism, achievement goals, and the temporal patterning of multidimensional state anxiety in 119 high school runners. Instruments assessed achievement goals (Roberts & Balague, 1989), perfectionism (Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), and multidimensional state anxiety (Martens, Burton, & Vealey, 1990) on 4 occasions prior to a cross-country meet. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that overall perfectionism was a consistent, significant predictor of cognitive anxiety. Perceived ability was a consistent predictor of confidence, and ego and task goals contributed to the prediction of cognitive anxiety and confidence, respectively. Concern over mistakes, doubts about action, and personal standards were consistent predictors of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and confidence, respectively. The findings help further develop Smith’s (1996) model and suggest that the appraisal process underlying multidimensional state anxiety is influenced by individual differences in a number of achievement-related constructs.
Effects of Goal Specificity, Goal Difficulty, and Information Feedback on Endurance Performance
Howard K. Hall, Mobert S. Weinberg, and Allen Jackson
The purpose of the present investigation was twofold: first, to examine the relationship between goal difficulty, goal specificity, and endurance performance in a physical activity setting, and second, to determine the relationship between different types of information feedback, goals, and performance. Subjects (N = 94) performed on a hand dynamometer endurance task, being asked to hold a one-third maximum contraction for as long as possible. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following goal-setting conditions: (a) Do your best, (b) improve by 40 s, or (c) improve by 70 s. They were provided with either concurrent or terminal feedback in a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goals x trials) design. Performance results indicated a significant goals-by-trials interaction with the 40- and 70-s goal groups exhibiting significantly more improvement than the "do your best" group. No significant performance differences were found between the two feedback groups. However, significant differences in the performance-associated cognitions of the feedback groups indicated a preference for concurrent feedback as an adjunct to goals. Results are discussed in terms of Locke's goal-setting theory as well as some recent field research investigating the goal-setting performance relationship in physical education settings.
A Three-Wave Longitudinal Test of Self-Determination Theory’s Mediation Model of Engagement and Disaffection in Youth Sport
Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill, Nikos Ntoumanis, Howard K. Hall, and Gareth E. Jowett
Research adopting self-determination theory (SDT) supports a mediation model whereby coach motivational styles (autonomy support and interpersonal control) predict athletes’ engagement and disaffection in youth sport via the satisfaction and frustration of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Our study extends this research by examining SDT’s mediation model longitudinally with three waves of data. Two hundred fifty-two youth sports participants (M age = 12.98; SD = 1.84; range = 11–17; female n = 67) completed measures of study variables at the start, middle, and end of a competitive soccer season. Cross-lagged path analyses revealed that associations between the two coach motivational styles and athletes’ engagement were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. Furthermore, a positive reciprocal association between psychological need satisfaction and engagement emerged over time. This study therefore supports the temporal assumptions underpinning SDT’s mediation model but, importantly, evidences a mutually reinforcing interplay between athletes’ psychological needs and their engaged behavior.
Sport Psychologist’s Digest
S.J. Hanrahan, Howard K. Hall, Jim Taylor, and Mark A. Thompson
Edited by J. Robert Grove
Relationships Between the Coach-Created Motivational Climate and Athlete Engagement in Youth Sport
Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill, Howard K. Hall, and Gareth E. Jowett
Youth sport is a source of well-being for adolescents, yet experiences vary and attrition can be high. We sought to better understand the coach behaviors that foster positive experiences in youth sport by examining relationships between the motivational climate and athlete engagement (viz., confidence, dedication, enthusiasm, and vigor). We reasoned that a mastery climate (emphasis on effort and learning) would correspond with higher engagement, whereas a performance climate (emphasis on ability and outcome) was expected to correspond with lower engagement. Two-hundred sixty adolescent soccer players completed measures of engagement and perceived coach motivational climate. All dimensions of engagement were positively predicted by a mastery climate. Furthermore, cognitive aspects of engagement were positively predicted by a performance climate. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that a composite of engagement was positively associated with a mastery climate. Results suggest that a mastery climate offers a means of promoting higher levels of overall engagement.
Perfectionism and Burnout in Canoe Polo and Kayak Slalom Athletes: The Mediating Influence of Validation and Growth-Seeking
Andrew P. Hill, Howard K. Hall, Paul R. Appleton, and Jemma J. Murray
Recent research suggests that validation-seeking and dimensions of perfectionism may be antecedents of athlete burnout. The present investigation examined whether validation and growth-seeking mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. One-hundred and fifty canoe polo and kayak slalom athletes recruited from the top two divisions in the UK completed measures of validation and growth-seeking (GOI), perfectionism (HMPS), and athlete burnout (ABQ). Analyses supported the mediating role of validation-seeking in the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. However, while bivariate correlations indicated that self-oriented perfectionism was positively related to both validation and growth-seeking, neither mediated the self-oriented perfectionism-burnout relationship. The findings suggest that validation-seeking may be an important psychological factor in the development of burnout for athletes exhibiting high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. The relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and athlete burnout remains unclear because of its association with multiple motives and with socially prescribed perfectionism.