Investigating the existence of mixed emotions within a sport consumer behavior context is the purpose of this study. Two experimental studies with a 4 (game outcome) × 2 (response format) mixed model analysis of covariance were implemented. The authors tested concurrence of two opposite emotions in Study 1 by asking subjects to complete an online continuous measure of happiness/sadness. Subjects reported more mixed emotions while watching a conflicting game outcome, such as a disappointing win and relieving loss, than during a straight game outcome. In Study 2, real-time-based measures of sport consumer emotions appear to have greater validity than recall-based measures of sport consumer emotions. Subjects with real-time-based measures were less likely to report a straight loss as positive and a straight win as negative than those with the retrospective measure. This study provides evidence of mixed emotions; specifically, happiness and sadness can co-occur during sports consumption.
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
Yukyoum Kim, Hyun-Woo Lee, Marshall J. Magnusen and Minjung Kim
Sponsorship is a significant element of today’s marketing communication. Nevertheless, managers and researchers lack of systematic and integrative understanding of key factors that influence sponsorship outcomes and the contexts in which the relationships between sponsorship effectiveness antecedents and outcomes are stronger or weaker. The authors attempt to address this gap by providing a systematic meta-analytic review of sponsorship effectiveness that incorporates (1) cognitive, affective, and conative consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; (2) sponsor-related, dyadic, and sponsee-related antecedents to consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; and (3) sponsorship-related and methodological moderators of the relationships between the three antecedent categories and three outcome categories. Our findings help assess the validity and robustness of the predictive capability of the antecedents, and they also offer a more generalizable and empirically established set of factors that are vital to the achievement of key sponsorship outcomes. Several of our results afford noteworthy implications for improving the effectiveness of sponsorship research and practice.
Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song
We investigated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on physical performance during winter training in vitamin D insufficient taekwondo athletes. Thirty-five collegiate male and female taekwondo athletes, aged 19–22 years with low serum 25(OH)D concentration (28.8 ± 1.10 nmol/L), were randomly assigned to a vitamin D group (n = 20) or a placebo group (n = 15). Subjects received either a vitamin D3 capsule (5,000 IU/day) or a placebo during 4 weeks of winter training. Blood samples were collected for analyzing serum 25(OH)D concentration. Physical performance tests included Wingate anaerobic test, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, a countermovement jump test, sit-ups, agility test, and 20-m pacer. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in the vitamin D group (96.0 ± 3.77 nmol/L) after 4 weeks of supplementation, but no changes were found in the placebo group (F = 242.44, p = .000). There were significant interaction effects for anaerobic peak power (F = 7.49, p = .010) and isokinetic knee extension at 180 deg/s (F = 6.08, p = .019). Changes in serum 25(OH)D concentration were positively associated with changes in peak power and isokinetic knee extension at 180 deg/s. However, no significant interaction effects were observed in other performance variables. This study suggests that 4 weeks of vitamin D supplementation elevates serum 25(OH)D concentration to sufficient levels. Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves some but not all aspects of performance. Thus, efficacy of vitamin D supplementation to enhance performance remains unclear.