It has been determined that advertising tends to mitigate a negative trial effect among low-product-involvement consumers when it precedes the negative trial but has no impact on beliefs and attitudes when the trial is positive. This case study investigated the effect of advertisements on sport consumers’ satisfaction and conative loyalty in spectating sport. Specifically, the authors examined spectators who were novice attendees at an intercollegiate men’s basketball game (N = 206). Two groups (home team winning, home team losing) were investigated to determine whether advertising mitigated the negative product–trial effect (losing). The results indicated that although advertising did not mitigate losing specific to immediate satisfaction with the game outcome or decision to attend, it did seem to mitigate losing on conative loyalty.
Does Advertising Mitigate the Negative Effects of Losing on Satisfaction and Conative Aspects of Sport Attendance? A Case Study in Intercollegiate Athletics
Galen T. Trail, Hyungil Kwon, and Dean F. Anderson
Perceived Leadership Behavior of Physical Education Teacher-Coaches: When They Teach vs. When They Coach
Hyungil Harry Kwon, Do young Pyun, and May Kim
The objective of the study was to see whether a teacher-coach exhibits different types of leadership behavior when s/he teaches a PE class and coaches a group of athletes. The participants in this study were 17–18 year old second-year preuniversity students from two local junior colleges in Singapore. A total of 159 students of mixed gender participated, including 80 PE students and 79 student-athletes from floorball, canoeing, and shooting teams. All of the 159 students were taught or coached by three (one male and two female) PE teachers, who performed the dual roles of a PE teacher-coach in the school. The data collection instrument used in this study was the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) measuring five leadership behaviors. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that democratic decision making accounted for most of the differences between the PE students’ and student-athletes’ perceived leadership behavior of their teacher-coaches; the student-athletes perceived their coaches to provide training and instruction more than did the PE students. In addition to training and instruction, the student-athletes perceived more positive feedback given to them than did the PE students. For decision making style, students in PE class perceived more democratic decision making than athletes in school teams. The social support subscale did not show statistically significant group difference.
Emotional Intelligence, Unpleasant Emotions, Emotional Exhaustion, and Job Satisfaction in Physical Education Teaching
Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon, and K. Andrew R. Richards
Purpose: Previous literature has demonstrated the contribution of emotional intelligence to various socioemotional processes including well-being, job performance, and leadership effectiveness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among emotional intelligence, unpleasant emotions, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in physical educators. Method: A total of 271 high school physical educators in the United States completed online questionnaires that measured the proposed variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were employed to test study hypotheses. Results: The results revealed that emotional intelligence was negatively associated with unpleasant emotions experienced by physical educators. In turn, unpleasant emotion was positively associated with emotional exhaustion and negatively associated with job satisfaction. In addition, emotional intelligence was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. Discussion/Conclusions: This is the first study to highlight the importance of emotional intelligence on well-being and job-related attitude in physical education contexts.