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Chun-Chih Wang, Chien-Heng Chu, I-Hua Chu, Kuei-Hui Chan and Yu-Kai Chang

This study was designed to examine the modulation of executive functions during acute exercise and to determine whether exercise intensity moderates this relationship. Eighty college-aged adults were recruited and randomly assigned into one of the four following groups: control, 30%, 50%, and 80% heart rate reserve. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was administered during each intervention. The results indicated that the majority of the WCST performances were impaired in the high exercise intensity group relative to those of the other three groups, whereas similar performance rates were maintained in the low- and moderate-intensity groups. These findings suggest that transient hypofrontality occurs during high-intensity exercise, but not during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. Future research aimed at employing the dual-mode theory, and applying the reticular-activating hypofrontality model is recommended to further the current knowledge.

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Feng-Hua Tsai, I-Hua Chu, Chun-Hao Huang, Jing-Min Liang, Jia-Hroung Wu and Wen-Lan Wu

Context: It has been reported that there is a high rate of Achilles tendon injury among kendo athletes. For protection and to support the area, kendo athletes habitually use taping during practice or games. Objective: To investigate the effect of various taping techniques on injury prevention and functional performance in kendo athletes. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: 15 University Kendo Team athletes with at least 2 y kendo experience. Main Outcome Measures: Athletes completed 5 stepping backwards and striking cycles under 4 taping conditions: no taping, athletic taping of ankle joint (AT-Ankle), athletic taping of Achilles tendon (AT-Achilles), and Kinesio-Tex taping of Achilles tendon (KT-Achilles). Jump distance, lower limb angular motion, left foot-ground contact time, Achilles tendon force (ATF), and soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle activities were measured. Results: Lowest peak ATF was found in AT-Achilles during heel-down phase, with statistically significant difference from KT-Achilles peak force. Significant decline of soleus muscle electromyography amplitude was also found when compared to no taping during heel-down phase and other conditions during pushing phase. Conversely, KT-Achilles showed significant decrease in foot-ground contact time compared with no taping and greater ankle range of motion than in AT-Ankle. Conclusion: To protect the Achilles tendon, AT-Achilles taping is recommended since it tends to decrease ATF. Conversely, to enhance athlete performance, we recommend KT-Achilles taping to speed up kendo striking motion. However, the Achilles tendon must withstand greatest forces concurrently. This finding implies that AT-Achilles taping can protect the injured Achilles tendon and KT-Achilles taping can enhance performance on the kendo striking motion.

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Yu-Kai Chang, I-Hua Chu, Feng-Tzu Chen and Chun-Chih Wang

The present research attempts to evaluate the dose-response relationship between acute resistance exercise and planning. Seventeen participants performed the Tower of London (TOL) in control condition and three different exercise intensity conditions (40%, 70%, and 100% 10-repetition maximal) in a counterbalanced order. The results revealed positive effects of an acute bout of resistance exercise on the TOL. Specifically, a curvilinear trend was observed between exercise intensity and TOL scores that measured performances of “correct” and “move,” where moderate intensity demonstrated the most optimal performance compared with the other conditions. None of these differences were found in TOL scores that measure performances of “violation” and “planning speed.” These results suggest that acute moderate intensity resistance exercise could facilitate planning-related executive functions in middle-aged adults.

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Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu and Yu-Kai Chang

This study examines the effect of a 12-week multicomponent exercise intervention on metacognition among preadolescents with obesity. Seventy-five preadolescents were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent exercise group or a reading control group. An exercise intervention consisting of a jumping rope was utilized to develop multifaceted fitness features, with each session lasting for 75 min and three sessions being conducted per week for 12 weeks. Results revealed significant interactions between group and time point for cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility, and power, as well as for Tower of London task measures, including total move score, total executive time, and total planning-solving time, with better postintervention performances achieved by the exercise group. Positive correlations between the physical fitness and metacognition measurements were also observed. These findings suggest that the multicomponent exercise benefits metacognition in obese preadolescents, with exercise-associated changes in multifaceted fitness features mediating the relationship between exercise and metacognition.

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Hsuan Su, Nai-Jen Chang, Wen-Lan Wu, Lan-Yuen Guo and I-Hua Chu


Foam rolling has been proposed to improve muscle function, performance, and joint range of motion (ROM). However, whether a foam rolling protocol can be adopted as a warm-up to improve flexibility and muscle strength is unclear.


To examine and compare the acute effects of foam rolling, static stretching, and dynamic stretching used as part of a warm-up on flexibility and muscle strength of knee flexion and extension.


Crossover study.


University research laboratory.


15 male and 15 female college students (age 21.43 ± 1.48 y, weight 65.13 ± 12.29 kg, height 166.90 ± 6.99 cm).

Main Outcome Measures:

Isokinetic peak torque was measured during knee extension and flexion at an angular velocity of 60°/second. Flexibility of the quadriceps was assessed by the modified Thomas test, while flexibility of the hamstrings was assessed using the sit-and-reach test. The 3 interventions were performed by all participants in random order on 3 days separated by 48–72 hours.


The flexibility test scores improved significantly more after foam rolling as compared with static and dynamic stretching. With regard to muscle strength, only knee extension peak torque (pre vs. postintervention) improved significantly after the dynamic stretching and foam rolling, but not after static stretching. Knee flexion peak torque remained unchanged.


Foam rolling is more effective than static and dynamic stretching in acutely increasing flexibility of the quadriceps and hamstrings without hampering muscle strength, and may be recommended as part of a warm-up in healthy young adults.

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Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu and Yu-Kai Chang

This study aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness of aerobic vs. resistance exercise on cognitive function. In addition, salivary cortisol responses, as an indicator of arousal-related neuroendocrine responses, were assessed as a potential mechanism underlying the effects of these 2 modes of acute exercise on cognition. Forty-two young adults were recruited and performed the Stroop task after 1 session of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and a sedentary condition performed on separate days. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and immediately and 30 min after treatment conditions. Acute exercise, regardless of exercise modality, improved multiple aspects of cognitive function as reflected by the Stroop task. Cortisol responses were higher after both modes of acute exercise compared with the sedentary condition and were higher at baseline and 30 min afterward compared with immediately after treatment conditions. These findings suggest that acute exercise of moderate intensity facilitates cognitive function, and, although salivary cortisol is influenced by acute exercise, levels were not related to improvements in cognition.