The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental and children’s physical activity and screen time behaviors in a large sample of children in the early years. The results are based on 738 children aged 0–5 years and their parents from the Kingston, Canada area. Parents completed a questionnaire from May to September 2011 that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child’s physical activity and screen time. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were conducted. Parents in the lowest quartile of physical activity were 2.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68–4.57) times more likely to have a child in the lowest quartile of physical activity compared with parents in the highest quartile of physical activity. Relationships were stronger in two parent homes compared with single-parent homes. Parents in the second (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.36–3.78), third (2.30, 1.32–3.99), and fourth (7.47, 4.53–12.33) screen time quartiles were significantly more likely to have a child in the highest quartile of screen time compared with parents in quartile one. To optimize healthy growth and development in the early years, future family-centered interventions targeting both physical activity and screen time appear important.
The Relationship Between Parental Physical Activity and Screen Time Behaviors and the Behaviors of their Young Children
Valerie Carson, Jodie Stearns, and Ian Janssen
Difference Between Self-Reported and Accelerometer Measured Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Youth
Allana G.W. LeBlanc and Ian Janssen
We examined differences between objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) measures of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth. Participants included 2761 youth aged 12–19 years. Within each sex and race group, objective and self-reported measures of MVPA were poorly correlated (R 2 = .01–.10). Self-reported MVPA values were higher than objective values (median: 42.4 vs. 15.0 min/d). 65.4% of participants over-reported their MVPA by 35 min/d. The difference between self-reported and objective measures was not influenced by sex, age, or race. There was, however, a systematic difference such that inactive participants over-reported their MVPA to the greatest extent.
Associations Between Neighborhood Safety, Availability of Recreational Facilities, and Adolescent Physical Activity Among Canadian Youth
Marianne Nichol, Ian Janssen, and William Pickett
The safety of neighborhoods and availability of parks and facilities may influence adolescent physical activity independently or interactively.
9114 Canadians in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey. The outcome of interest was students’ self-reported participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity outside of school. A composite scale based on questions measuring student perceptions of safety was used to capture individual perceptions of safety. In addition, schools were grouped into quintiles based on the mean of the perceived safety scale, used as a proxy for peer perceptions. The number of parks and recreational facilities within 5 km of schools was abstracted from a geographical information system.
Moderate gradients in physical activity were observed according to individual and group perceptions of safety. Boys and girls with the highest perceptions of safety were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17−1.45) and 1.45 (1.26−1.65) times more likely to be physically active, respectively, than those with the lowest perceptions. Compared with those who perceived the neighborhood as least safe, elementary students in higher quintiles were 1.31, 1.39, 1.37, and 1.56 times more likely to be physically active (P trend = 0.012). Increased numbers of recreational features were not related to physical activity irrespective of neighborhood safety.
Individual and group perceptions of neighborhood safety were modestly associated with adolescents’ physical activity.
Influence of Movement Intensity and Physical Activity on Adiposity in Youth
Amy E. Mark and Ian Janssen
Despite the plethora of research examining the physical activity-adiposity relation in youth, questions remain regarding the ideal intensity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the independent effects of physical activity intensity and incidental movement on total and trunk adiposity.
The sample consisted of 1165 youth aged 8 to 17 years from the 2003−04 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity (low, moderate, vigorous intensity) and incidental movement (activity level when not physically active) were measured using Actigraph accelerometers over 7 days. Total body and trunk fat were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; age- and sex-specific percentile scores were calculated.
Bivariate analyses revealed an inverse relation between total, low, moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity with total body and trunk fat. After consideration of the total volume of physical activity in the multivariate analyses, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity remained significantly related to total and trunk fat. Participants with the highest (top 12.5%) moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity values had total fat percentile scores that were 34 points lower than participants with the lowest (bottom 25%) values.
These results are consistent with public health guidelines which recommend that children and youth participate in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity.
Influence of Physical Activity on Age-Related Weight Loss in the Elderly
Wendy C. Stephen and Ian Janssen
Little is known about the effects of physical activity on weight loss in older adults.
Participants included 4512 community-dwelling older (≥65 yr) men and women from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Physical activity (PA) was determined from a questionnaire at baseline and subjects were divided into sex-specific PA quartiles. Weight was measured at baseline and annually over the 8 years of follow-up. The influence of PA on longitudinal changes in body weight was examined using mixed models while adjusting for lifestyle variables, sociodemographic characteristics, and disease status.
Body weight declined in a curvilinear manner over time with accelerated weight loss occurring in the final years. Over the 8 yr follow-up period, the least active PA quartile lost 2.72 kg. Weight loss was attenuated by 0.55 kg (20%, P = .057), 0.80 kg (29%, P = .05), and 0.69 kg (25%, P = .016) within the second through fourth PA quartiles. The effects of PA did not differ by gender, but increased with advancing age.
Participation in modest amounts of PA attenuated age-related weight loss by approximately 25% with little additional benefit observed at higher PA levels. This finding adds to the growing number of health outcomes that are positively affected by PA.
Imputing Accelerometer Nonwear Time When Assessing Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Children
Emily Borgundvaag, Michael McIsaac, Michael M. Borghese, and Ian Janssen
Background: A limitation of accelerometer measures of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is nonwear time. Nonwear-time data is typically deleted prior to estimating MVPA. In this study, we used an approach that used sociodemographic, health, and time data to guide the imputation of nonwear-time data. We determined whether imputing nonwear-time data influences estimates of MVPA and the association between MVPA, body mass index, and blood pressure. Methods: Seven days of accelerometer data were collected on 332 children aged 10–13 years. MVPA was estimated in a “nonimputed dataset,” wherein nonwear-time data were deleted prior to estimating MVPA, and in an “imputed dataset,” wherein nonwear-time data were imputed using sociodemographic and health characteristics of participants and time characteristics of the nonwear period prior to estimating MVPA. Results: Nonwear time represented 7% of waking hours. Average MVPA estimates did not differ in the nonimputed and imputed datasets (56.8 vs 58.4 min/d). The strength of the relationship between MVPA and the 2 health outcomes did not differ in the nonimputed and imputed datasets. Conclusions: Studies achieving high accelerometer wear-time compliance can obtain MVPA estimates without substantial bias if they use the traditional approach of deleting nonwear-time data.
The Independent Influence of Physical Inactivity and Obesity on Health Complaints in 6th to 10th Grade Canadian Youth
Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William F. Boyce, and William Pickett
The purpose of this study was to examine the independent influence of physical inactivity and obesity on health complaints in school-aged youth.
The findings are based on Canadian records from the 2001-2002 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey. The study cohort consisted of 5673 youth in grades 6 to 10. Body weight and height (used to calculate body mass index and adiposity level), physical activity, and somatic (physical) and psychological health complaints were measured by questionnaire. General linear models were used to characterize the associations between physical activity and adiposity with somatic and psychological health complaints.
In boys and girls, adiposity level alone was independently associated with somatic health complaints, whereas both physical activity level and adiposity level were independently associated with psychological health complaints.
The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of both physical inactivity and obesity are important in school-aged youth.
Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines Among Adults: Findings From the Canadian Health Measures Survey
Scott Rollo, Karen C. Roberts, Felix Bang, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Rachel C. Colley, Ian Janssen, and Mark S. Tremblay
Background: This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors and meeting versus not meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines recommendations. Methods: The study is based on 7651 respondents aged 18–79 years from the 2007 to 2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Sociodemographic factors included age, sex, household education, household income, race, having a chronic condition, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index. Participants were classified as meeting or not meeting each of the time-specific recommendations for moderate to vigorous physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep duration. Results: Being an adult aged 18–64 years, normal weight, nonsmoker, and not having a chronic condition were associated with meeting the integrated guidelines. Being aged 18–64 years, male, normal weight, nonsmoker, not having a chronic condition, having a higher household education, and higher household income were associated with meeting the moderate to vigorous physical activity recommendation; being aged 18–64 years was associated with meeting the sedentary behavior recommendation; and being white, not having a chronic condition, and having a higher household income were associated with meeting the sleep duration recommendation. Conclusions: Few Canadian adults met the 2020 Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and disparities across sociodemographic factors exist. Implementation strategies and dissemination approaches to encourage uptake and adoption are necessary.
Results From Canada’s 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth
Joel D. Barnes, Christine Cameron, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy E.J. Faulkner, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Roger Kramers, Allana G. LeBlanc, John C. Spence, and Mark S. Tremblay
The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the most comprehensive assessment of child and youth physical activity in Canada and provides an update or “state of the nation” that assesses how Canada is doing at promoting and facilitating physical activity opportunities for children and youth. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card.
Twelve physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using a process that was informed by the best available evidence. Sources included national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, and gray literature such as government and nongovernment reports and online content.
Grades were assigned to Daily Behaviors (Overall Physical Activity: D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation: B; Active Play: D+; Active Transportation: D; Physical Literacy: D+; Sleep: B; Sedentary Behaviors: F), Settings and Sources of Influence (Family and Peers: C+; School: B; Community and Environment: A-), and Strategies and Investments (Government: B-; Nongovernment: A-).
Similar to previous years of the Report Card, Canada generally received good grades for indicators relating to investment, infrastructure, strategies, policies, and programming, and poor grades for behavioral indicators (eg, Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors).
Results from Canada’s 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth
Casey E. Gray, Joel D. Barnes, Jennifer Cowie Bonne, Christine Cameron, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy Faulkner, Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Angela M. Kolen, Stephen R. Manske, Art Salmon, John C. Spence, Brian W. Timmons, and Mark S. Tremblay
The Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how Canada is being responsible in providing physical activity opportunities for children (3- to 11-years-old) and youth (12- to 17-years-old). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the results of the 2014 AHKC 10th Anniversary Report Card.
Ten physical activity indicators were graded using the AHKC Report Card development process, which includes a synthesis of the best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus.
Grades assigned were for: ‘Behaviors that Contribute to Overall Physical Activity Levels’ (Overall Physical Activity Levels, D-; Organized Sport Participation, C+; Active Play, INCOMPLETE; Active Transportation, D; Sedentary Behaviors, F), ‘Settings and Sources of Influence’ (Family and Peers, C; School, C+; and Community and the Built Environment, B+), and ‘Strategies and Investments’ (Government Strategies and Investments, C; and Non-Government Strategies and Investments, A-).
Despite good availability of policies, programs, and infrastructure, the overall physical activity levels of Canadian children and youth remain low while sedentary behavior levels remain high. As with many nations, there is room for improvement in most physical activity behaviors and some sources of influence.